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Table 3 The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the sonographic findings for target diagnoses

From: Earlier point-of-care ultrasound, shorter length of stay in patients with acute flank pain

  Sonographic finding PoCUS time (min) Sensitivity, % Specificity, % PPV†‡, % NPV†‡, %
Urolithiasis (n = 503) Unilateral hydronephrosis ≤120 86.4 (83.0,89.7) 83.0 (78.8,87.1) 86.6 (83.2,89.9) 82.7 (78.6,86.9)
    > 120 86.0 (79.2,92.8) 76.5 (66.4,86.6) 84.3 (77.3,91.4) 78.8 (68.9,88.7)
Pyelonephritis (n = 130) Normal kidney* ≤120 63.0 (53.5,72.5) 69.4 (65.7,73.0) 24.9 (19.6,30.2) 92.1 (89.6,94.5)
    > 120 56.7 (38.9,74.4) 74.6 (67.4,81.9) 32.7 (19.9,45.4) 88.8 (83.1,94.5)
Myofascial pain (n = 127) Normal kidney* ≤120 100 (100,100) 77.5 (74.1,80.8) 43.9 (37.7,50.1) 100 (100,100)
    > 120 100 (100,100) 77.9 (71.2,84.5) 36.5 (23.5,49.6) 100 (100,100)
  1. *Indicated without the presence of hydronephrosis or other specific findings
  2. PoCUS point-of-care ultrasound, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value
  3. () indicates 95% confidence intervals