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Table 2 Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients (N = 5163) treated by the Tochigi Helicopter Emergency Medical Services

From: Characteristics of patients who received helicopter emergency medical services in Japan from 2012 to 2019: a retrospective analysis of data from Tochigi Prefecture

  n (%) or mean ± SD
Air lifted Ground escorted Assisted Total
n = 4215 n = 548 n = 400 n = 5163
Sex     
Men 2874 (68.2) 356 (65.0) 259 (64.8) 3489 (67.6)
Age (in years; mean ± SD) 55.2 ± 24.5 57.7 ± 24.5 58.6 ± 26.1 55.7 ± 24.7
0–9 342 (8.1) 36 (6.6) 19 (4.8) 397 (7.7)
10–19 223 (5.3) 25 (4.6) 42 (10.5) 290 (5.6)
20–29 193 (4.6) 27 (4.9) 12 (3.0) 232 (4.5)
30–39 226 (5.4) 28 (5.1) 22 (5.5) 276 (5.3)
40–49 391 (9.3) 60 (10.9) 31 (7.8) 482 (9.3)
50–59 540 (12.8) 53 (9.7) 37 (9.3) 630 (12.2)
60–69 892 (21.2) 105 (19.2) 60 (15.0) 1057 (20.5)
70–79 825 (19.6) 104 (19) 87 (21.8) 1016 (19.7)
80–89 525 (12.5) 93 (17) 62 (15.5) 680 (13.2)
90–99 58 (1.4) 17 (3.1) 27 (6.8) 102 (2.0)
100 > 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.0)
Year     
2012 483 (11.5) 68 (12.4) 33 (8.3) 584 (11.3)
2013 491 (11.6) 69 (12.6) 20 (5.0) 580 (11.2)
2014 552 (13.1) 78 (14.2) 42 (10.5) 672 (13.0)
2015 612 (14.5) 88 (16.1) 54 (13.5) 754 (14.6)
2016 553 (13.1) 59 (10.8) 67 (16.8) 679 (13.2)
2017 501 (11.9) 62 (11.3) 42 (10.5) 605 (11.7)
2018 514 (12.2) 56 (10.2) 71 (17.8) 641 (12.4)
2019 509 (12.1) 68 (12.4) 71 (17.8) 648 (12.6)
Season     
Spring (March–May) 1112 (26.4) 122 (22.3) 89 (22.3) 1323 (25.6)
Summer (June–August) 1112 (26.4) 130 (23.7) 119 (29.8) 1361 (26.4)
Autumn (September–November) 1029 (24.4) 130 (23.7) 100 (25.0) 1259 (24.4)
Winter (December-February) 962 (22.8) 166 (30.3) 92 (23.0) 1220 (23.6)
Median Distance (in km) (IQR) 27.4 (15.9–37.7) 25.4 (14.3–34.4) 29.7 (18.9–38.3) 27.4 (15.8–37.1)
Missing 110 (2.6) 16 (2.9) 26 (6.5) 152 (2.9)
Time from helicopter takeoff to flight doctor encounter, min mean ± SD 14.5 ± 12.7 15.8 ± 17.8 15.1 ± 6.6 14.7 ± 13.0
Missing 119 (2.8) 43 (7.8) 48 (12.0) 210 (4.1)
Diagnosis     
Trauma 1490 (35.3) 145 (26.5) 111 (27.8) 1746 (33.8)
Neurology 395 (9.4) 70 (12.8) 47 (11.8) 512 (9.9)
Cardiovascular diseases 1385 (32.9) 167 (30.5) 74 (18.5) 1,626 (31.5)
Ischemic heart disease 379 (9.0) 40 (7.3) 6 (1.5) 425 (8.2)
Aortic disease 94 (2.2) 4 (0.7) 3 (0.8) 101 (2.0)
Stroke 772 (18.3) 103 (18.8) 54 (13.5) 929 (18.0)
Others 140 (3.3) 20 (3.6) 11 (2.8) 171 (3.3)
Cardiopulmonary arrest 99 (2.3) 34 (6.2) 10 (2.5) 143 (2.8)
Respiratory disease 70 (1.7) 7 (1.3) 12 (3.0) 89 (1.7)
Gastroenterology 113 (2.7) 11 (2.0) 17 (4.3) 141 (2.7)
Allergies 163 (3.9) 18 (3.3) 15 (3.8) 196 (3.8)
Toxicosis 58 (1.4) 16 (2.9) 3 (0.8) 77 (1.5)
Other diseases 442 (10.5) 80 (14.6) 111 (27.8) 633 (12.3)
Pre-hospital severity     
Mild 494 (11.7) 83 (15.1) 147 (36.8) 724 (14.0)
Moderate 1221 (29.0) 193 (35.2) 156 (39.0) 1570 (30.4)
Severe 2485 (59.0) 265 (48.4) 86 (21.5) 2,836 (54.9)
Death 7 (0.2) 7 (1.3) 1 (0.3) 15 (0.3)
Missing 8 (0.2) 0 (0) 10 (2.5) 18 (0.3)
Pre-hospital GCS     
3–8 896 (21.3) 152 (27.7) 51 (12.8) 1099 (21.3)
9–13 749 (17.8) 93 (17.0) 64 (16.0) 906 (17.5)
14–15 2535 (60.1) 297 (54.2) 271 (67.8) 3103 (60.1)
Missing 35 (0.8) 6 (1.1) 14 (3.5) 55 (1.1)
Pre-hospital interventions     
Intravenous drip 3954 (93.8) 509 (92.9) 345 (86.3) 4808 (93.1)
Oxygen administration 3185 (75.6) 378 (69.0) 191 (47.8) 3754 (72.7)
Ultrasound examination 2513 (59.6) 296 (54.0) 226 (56.5) 3035 (58.8)
Endotracheal intubation 584 (13.9) 60 (10.9) 7 (1.8) 651 (12.6)
Pleural drainage 71 (1.7) 6 (1.1) 1 (0.3) 78 (1.5)
Chest compression 96 (2.3) 32 (5.8) 5 (1.3) 133 (2.6)
External defibrillation 145 (3.4) 19 (3.5) 4 (1.0) 168 (3.3)