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Table 1 Emergency characteristics of children receiving medical analgesia during HEMS operations

From: Analgesia in pediatric trauma patients in physician-staffed Austrian helicopter rescue: a 12-year registry analysis

  Injured, not mechanically ventilated children (< 15 yrs.) receiving medical analgesia (n = 2885) n (%) or median (IQR) p
Age [yrs] 0–5
n = 443 (15.4)
6–10
n = 902 (31.3)
11–14
n = 1540 (53.4)
Sex [male/female] 280/163 (63.2/36.8) 558/343 (61.9/38.1) 1048/492 (68.1/31.9)  
NA 0 1 (0.1) 0  
NACA score 3 (3–4) 3 (3–4) 3 (3–4) < 0.001
NA 0 0 0  
Number of injured regions     
1 306 (69.1) 659 (73.1) 1085 (70.5) 0.237
2–3 125 (28.2) 221 (24.5) 420 (27.3) 0.225
≥ 4 12 (2.7) 22 (2.4) 35 (2.3) 0.864
NA 0 0 0  
Injury localization     
Head 144 (32.5) 193 (21.4) 290 (18.8) < 0.001
Spine 16 (3.6) 116 (12.9) 252 (16.4) < 0.001
Chest 81 (18.3) 74 (8.2) 153 (9.9) < 0.001
Abdomen 50 (11.3) 109 (12.1) 165 (10.7) 0.585
Pelvis 10 (2.3) 22 (2.4) 55 (3.6) 0.172
Upper extremity 163 (36.8) 290 (32.2) 525 (34.1) 0.233
Lower extremity 186 (42.0) 451 (50.0) 755 (49.0) 0.015
Initial level of pain     
No pain 18 (4.1) 15 (1.7) 22 (1.4) 0.001
Mild pain 76 (17.4) 110 (12.4) 157 (10.3) < 0.001
Moderate to severe pain 331 (75.7) 750 (84.4) 1338 (87.8) < 0.001
NA 6 (1.4) 13 (1.4) 16 (1.0)  
Analgesics administered     
Opioids 165 (37.2) 490 (54.3) 977 (63.4) < 0.001
Esketamine 293 (66.1) 487 (54.0) 744 (48.3) < 0.001
Metamizole 5 (1.1) 18 (2.0) 38 (2.5) 0.216
NSAIDs 1 (0.2) 7 (0.8) 8 (0.5) 0.426
Acetaminophen 15 (3.4) 4 (0.4) 1 (0.1) < 0.001
Analgesic regimen     
Mono therapy 408 (92.1) 798 (88.5) 1312 (85.2) < 0.001
Dual therapy 34 (7.7) 104 (11.5) 226 (14.7) < 0.001
Triple therapy 1 (0.2) 0 (0) 2 (0.1) 0.434
Medical combinations     
Opioids only 135 (30.5) 386 (42.8) 756 (49.1) < 0.001
Esketamine only 259 (58.5) 392 (43.5) 536 (34.8) < 0.001
Opioids with Esketamine 29 (6.5) 95 (10.5) 200 (13.0) < 0.001
Metamizole only 2 (0.5) 13 (1.4) 18 (1.2) 0.274
Opioids with Metamizole 0 (0) 5 (0.6) 15 (1.0) 0.078
Acetaminophen only 12 (2.7) 2 (0.2) 0 (1.0) < 0.001
Route of administration     
I.V. access 329 (74.3) 818 (90.7) 1399 (90.8) < 0.001
I.O. access 4 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) < 0.001
Mucosal atomization device 8 (1.8) 13 (1.4) 6 (0.4) 0.004
NA 14 (3.2) 14 (1.6) 29 (1.9)  
Technical monitoring applied     
None 54 (12.2) 111 (12.3) 231 (15.0) 0.104
Blood pressure 168 (37.9) 432 (47.9) 823 (53.4) < 0.001
Pulse oximetry 362 (81.7) 743 (81.2) 1165 (75.6) 0.001
3-channel-ECG 101 (22.8) 188 (20.8) 339 (22.0) 0.676
NA 0 0 0  
  1. CPR denotes cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ECG electrocardiogram, I.O. intraosseus, IQR interquartile range, IV intravenous, NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NA missing values