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Table 2 Components and scores of established scoring systems and most promising trigger factor iterations

From: Identification and validation of objective triggers for initiation of resuscitation management of acutely ill non-trauma patients: the INITIATE IRON MAN study

  qSOFA (0–3) NEWS (0–20) Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3
Positive if:  ≥ 2 points  ≥ 7 points*  ≥ 2 points or D alone qSOFA ≥ 2 or any of the following Any of the following
A/B RR > 21/min (1) RR, breaths per min (0–3):
0, 12–20
1, 9–11
2, 21–24
3, ≥ 25 or < 8
SpO2, % (0–3):
0, > 96
1, 94–95
2, 92–93
3, < 91
O2 supplement (0–2):
No (0)
Yes (2)
RR > 25/min or SpO2 < 90% (1) SpO2 < 85% SpO2 < 90%
C SBP ≤ 100 mmHg (1) HR, beats per min (0–3):
0, 51–90
1, 41–50 or 90–110
2, 111–130
3, 131
SBP, mmHg (0–3):
0, 111–219
1, 101–110
2, 91–100
3, ≥ 220 or ≤ 90
SBP < 100 mmHg (1)
Lactate ≥ 3 mmol/l (1)
SBP < 85 mmHg SBP < 90 mmHg or
D Altered mentation (1) AVPU Scale Alert (0), reacting to voice or pain or unresponsive (3) GCS < 15 (1) GCS < 15 GCS < 15
E n.a Body temperature, °C (0–3):
0, 36.1–38
1, 35.1–36 or 38.1–39
2, > 39.1
3, ≤ 35
n.a n.a n.a
  1. AVPU, Alert, Verbal, Pain, Unresponsive; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; HR, heart rate; n.a., not available; NEWS, National Early Warning Score; qSOFA, Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score; RR, respiratory rate; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SpO2, peripheral oxygen saturation
  2. *The NEWS score (0–20 points) recommends “emergency assessment by a clinical team/critical care outreach team with critical-care competencies” at ≥7 points. Accordingly, a NEWS ≥7 cut-off was considered as positive