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Table 1 Collected research themes and special interest groups

From: The updated national research agenda 2021–2026 for prehospital emergency medical services in the Netherlands: a Delphi study

A) Airway and breathing
 Clearing the airwayA,B,C,D
 Ventilation (e.g. use of mask, balloon) A,B,C,D
 Oxygen administrationA,B,C,D
 Medicinal intervention in COPDA,B,C,D
 Treatment of hyperventilationA,B,C,D
B) Circulation and Cardiology
 Diagnosis and treatment of acute cardiac complaintsA,B,C,D
 Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI/ non STEMI) A,B,C,D
 Shock therapyA,B,C,D
C) Neurology and Anesthesiology
 Pain (registration/treatment) A,B,C,D
 Recognition acute neurologic disordersA,B,C,D
 Intoxication (alcohol/drugs/medication) A,B,C,D
 Neurologic examination (Glasgow Coma Scale) A,B,C,D
 (Unintentional) cooling/hypothermiaA,B,C,D
D) Traumatology
 Trauma careA,B,C,D
E) Internal medicine
 Acute abdominal complaintsA,B,C,D
 Screening and treatment of sepsisA,B,C,D
 Allergic reactions/ anaphylaxisA,B,C,D
F) Psychiatry
 Dealing with/treatment of confused behaviourA,B,C,D
G) Gynaecology and Obstetrics
 Child birth/partusA,B,C,D
 Postpartum bleeding/ hemorrhage A,B,C,D
H) Organization of care
 Mobile care consultation/ non-conveyance A,B,C,D
 Care stratification (Advanced life support, complexity, transports) A,B,C,D
 Differentiation in functionsA,B,C,D
 Cost-effectiveness (diagnostics, treatment and organization of care) A,B,C,D
 Triage and urgency clasificationA,B,C,D
 First responders (police, firemen, civilians) A,B,C,D
 'Rapid responders'A,B,C,D
 Deployment of HEMSA,B,C,D
 Deployment/ availability of ambulancesA,B,C,D Mass-casualty incident managementA,B,C,D
I) The chain of emergency care
 Registration and exchange of patient data within the chain of emergency careA,B,C,D
 Care coordinationA,B,C,D
 Interprofessional collaborationA,B,C,D
 Collaboration with partners outside the healthcare domain (e.g. police, fire brigade) A,B,C,D
 Feedback/ evaluation of collaborationA,B,C,D
J) Measuring quality of care
 Patient safetyA,B,C,D
 Protocols (development, implementation and adherence) A,B,C,D
 Patient perspective and satisfactionA,B,C,D
 'Scoop and run'A,B,C,D
 Registration and evaluation of time periods in ambulance deployment (response, treatment and transport time) A,B,C,D
K) Education/training of professionals
 Professional behaviour
 Competences (knowledge, skills and attitude) A,B,C,D
 Forms of training (e.g. simulation, case-based learning) A,B,C,D
 Testing and examiningA,B,C,D
 Clinical decision-making and diagnostic protocols) A,B,C,D
L) Human resources
 Employee safetyA,B,C,D
 Vitality (physical and mental) and sustainable employabilityA,B,C,D
 Ethics and spiritualityA,B,C,D
 Team climate/culture in EMS’sA,B,C,D
 Recruitment, selection and retention of employeesA,B,C,D
Special Interest Groups
 Vulnerable elderly
 Patients with a migration background
 Patients in a terminal/palliative phase
 Low Literacy
  1. ADerived from the prior research agenda, BDerived from scoping review, CDerived from strategic documents, DDerived from input of the expert panel. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, STEMI = ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, CVA = Cerebrovasculair Accident, HEMS = Helicopter Emergency Medical Service