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Table 2 Results from survey/self-assessment and serological and PCR screening

From: High class filtering facepiece (FFP) are fundamental and effective in protection of emergency health care workers: an observational cohort study in a German community

Parameter All EMS HS NPC p value
Study participants (n) 730 325 322 83 N/A
Risk exposure
Q1: Known contact to SARS-CoV-2 positive patient or suspected SARS-CoV-2 patient, n (%) 473 (65) 276 (85) 197 (61) N/A 0.01#
Q2: Unknown contact to SARS-CoV-2 positive patient, n (%) 275 (38) 178 (55) 96 (30) N/A 0.01#
Q3: In terms of unknown contact: PPE used was a surgical mask or unprotected, n (%) 74 (27) 15 (8) 58 (60) N/A < 0.01#
Awareness of symptoms and COVID-19
Q4: Flu symptoms within last 10 months, n (%) 360 (50) 154 (47) 169 (52) 37 (44) 0.31##
Q5: Self assessment: Do you think you have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, n (%) 83 (16) 61 (19) 34 (10) 8 (10) 0.02##
Seroprevalence SARS-CoV-2 ab or PCR§
Sero + and PCR + , n 6 2 3 1 ND
Sero + but PCR − , n 3 1 1 1 ND
PCR + but Sero − , n 4 1 3 0 ND
n positive/ n paticipants 13/730 4/325 7/322 2/83 ND
SARS-CoV-2 incidence
Incidence, % 1.8 1.2 2.2 2.4 0.58##
  1. Q question, EMS emergency medical service, HS hospital staff, NPC non-patient contact group, PPE personal protective equipment, + positive and – negative, N/A not applicable, ND not determined
  2. §Positive PCR test result provided by study participants and within the observational period (March until December 2020)
  3. #Student t test comparing EMS with HS
  4. ##ANOVA Kruskal–Wallis test for trend in all groups