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Table 3 Variation in safety culture domain scores between the respondent’s characteristic

From: Exploring safety culture in the Finnish ambulance service with Emergency Medical Services Safety Attitudes Questionnaire

  Safety climate a = 0.810 Teamwork climate a = 0.821 Perceptions of management a = 0.726 Stress recognition a = 0.689 Working conditions a = 0.660 Job satisfaction a = 0.851
Mean (standard deviation)       
Total (n = 327) 60.04 (18.40) 60.95 (18.40) 56.19 (22.10) 64.62 (18.40) 53.40 (20.30) 70.26 (19.42)
Gender (n = 324) NS NS NS NS NS NS
 Female (161) 59.23 (18.11) 60.43 (17.37) 58.15 (20.86) 66.61 (17.86) 53.42 (21.37) 70.99 (18.18)
 Male (163) 60.71 (18.79) 61.17 (19.31) 54.33 (23.11) 62.85 (20.69) 54.33 (23.11) 69.45 (20.65)
Age (n = 273) NS NS NS NS NS NS
 ≤ 25 years (23) 64.60 (13.79) 62.32 (14.18) 54.62 (19.24) 69.57 (14.99) 52.67 (17.64) 71.52 (15.11)
 26–30 years (78) 57.69 (17.90) 60.04 (17.59) 58.57 (20.42) 62.58 (19.88) 51.84 (19.92) 71.03 (16.74)
 31–35 years (71) 57.75 (19.22) 59.27 (17.27) 53.87 (20.13) 65.05 (17.60) 52.11 (20.15) 67.75 (19.49)
 36–40 years (53) 58.76 (18.30) 61.40 (19.87) 52.59 (22.41) 67.57 (22.44) 52.48 (23.04) 68.21 (22.41)
 41–45 years (30) 62.86 (18.68) 62.64 (17.80) 53.54 (25.93) 66.04 (17.96) 55.63 (18.01) 70.50 (17.63)
 ≥ 46 years (18) 63.29 (22.25) 56.25 (21.87) 59.72 (24.65) 61.11 (24.96) 56.25 (22.38) 70.83 (21.09)
Education level (n = 327) NS p = 0.009 NS NS NS p = 0.021
 Master’s (50) 56.92 (19.70) 53.75 (20.40) 51.13 (22.75) 66.00 (20.95) 52.13 (20.07) 63.80 (20.57)
 Bachelor’s (225) 59.92 (18.33) 61.69 (17.88) 56.67 (22.30) 65.75 (18.65) 52.69 (20.01) 70.80 (19.33)
 Vocational (46) 64.83 (16.72) 66.49 (16.03) 60.46 (20.16) 58.29 (20.84) 57.74 (22.25) 75.76 (16.05)
 Other (6) 53.57 (18.49) 50.69 (20.31) 47.92 (17.97) 59.37 (19.26) 57.29 (16.96) 61.67 (24.63)
Working experience (n = 327) NS NS NS NS NS NS
 ≤ 5 years (110) 62.18 (16.59) 62.84 (15.76) 59.89 (21.07) 66.48 (18.66) 51.88 (19.07) 73.95 (14.89)
 6–10 years (113) 57.78 (19.50) 61.69 (19.29) 56.14 (20.85) 62.50 (20.20) 55.59 (20.16) 69.25 (21.44)
 11–15 years (53) 59.30 (17.33) 55.82 (19.05) 49.88 (22.38) 64.74 (20.59) 50.35 (19.59) 64.62 (20.96)
 > 15 years (51) 61.20 (20.47) 60.54 (20.44) 54.90 (25.47) 65.19 (18.21) 55.02 (23.59) 70.39 (20.61)
Position type (n = 325) NS NS NS NS p = 0.032 NS
 Advanced level (264) 59.02 (18.96) 60.21 (18.66) 55.75 (22.14) 65.63 (19.22) 52.18 (20.45) 69.45 (20.11)
 Basic level (61) 64.29 (15.50) 63.93 (17.31) 57.79 (22.35) 60.25 (20.19) 58.50 (19.20) 73.61 (16.10)
Employment status (n = 327) p = 0.020 NS p = 0.037 NS NS NS
 Full-time (295) 59.23 (18.47) 60.52 (18.52) 55.36 (22.06) 64.96 (19.32) 52.82 (20.42) 69.68 (19.72)
 Part-time (32) 67.52 (16.08) 64.84 (16.96) 63.87 (21.34) 61.52 (20.58) 58.79 (18.57) 75.63 (15.75)
Shift type (n = 327) NS p = 0.011 p = 0.001 NS NS p = 0.008
 24-h shifts (131) 61.64 (18.89) 64.53 (19.24) 61.50 (23.59) 64.27 (19.24) 54.91 (21.41) 73.74 (20.01)
 Two shift (181) 59.18 (18.21) 58.63 (17.80) 52.45 (20.11) 63.16 (19.72) 52.52 (19.96) 67.98 (18.91)
 Mix (24 h + 12 h and/or 8 h) (15) 56.43 (16.04) 57.50 (15.12) 55.00 (23.76) 73.33 (16.61) 50.83 (13.34) 67.33 (16.78)
Affiliation (n = 327) NS NS p = 0.008 NS p = 0.002 NS
 Health care district (161) 59.58 (18.01) 59.16 (18.12) 52.68 (22.13) 65.92 (17.51) 49.57 (20.01) 68.11 (19.46)
 Rescue department (119) 59.54 (18.84) 63.06 (18.31) 58.25 (21.40) 64.34 (21.77) 58.66 (19.88) 72.90 (18.67)
 Private (47) 62.84 (18.73) 61.70 (19.32) 63.03 (21.96) 60.90 (19.35) 53.19 (19.76) 70.96 (20.68)
Catchment area for highly responsive care (n = 327) p = 0.023 p = 0.006 p = 0.000 NS p = 0.012 p = 0.002
 Helsinki University Hospital (112) 62.56 (18.06) 59.44 (19.07) 53.07 (23.22) 65.85 (19.39) 52.79 (19.97) 69.06 (20.41)
 Turku University Hospital (41) 59.58 (20.87) 64.23 (17.20) 59.76 (21.65) 66.62 (19.04) 52.74 (24.61) 74.51 (19.33)
 Tampere University Hospital (50) 57.71 (18.17) 59.33 (18.63) 61.38 (20.31) 66.00 (21.32) 50.50 (18.07) 69.70 (21.01)
 Kuopio University Hospital (63) 54.54 (16.18) 56.75 (14.73) 45.44 (17.93) 59.62 (18.23) 50.10 (17.19) 64.84 (15.63)
 Oulu University Hospital (61) 63.29 (18.59) 67.14 (19.75) 66.39 (19.97) 65.06 (19.17) 60.76 (21.23) 75.65 (18.49)
  1. All p values counted with non-parametric tests (Mann–Whitney-U and Kruskal–Wallis)
  2. p values adjusted by the Bonferroni correction for multiple tests
  3. A 100-point scale: 0 = Disagree strongly, 25 = Disagree slightly, 50 = Neutral, 75 = Agree slightly, 100 = Agree strongly (375 = positive)