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Table 3 Performance of the screening models with respect to identification of sepsis

From: Performance of NEWS2, RETTS, clinical judgment and the Predict Sepsis screening tools with respect to identification of sepsis among ambulance patients with suspected infection: a prospective cohort study

  NEWS2 (20) ≥ 5 NEWS2 ≥ 7 RETTS (21) ≥ orange RETTS red Clinical judgment Predict Sepsis screening tool 1 (27) Predict Sepsis screening tool 2 (27) Predict Sepsis screening tool 3 (27)
Total score considered positive for predicted sepsis  ≥ 5  ≥ 7 RETTS ≥ orange RETTS red Clinical judgment sepsis by ambulance personnel  ≥ 2  ≥ 2  ≥ 2
Sensitivitya
(95%CI)
0.74 (0.65–0.80) 0.58 (0.50–0.66) 0.83 (0.75–0.88) 0.23 (0.17–0.31) 0.40 (0.32–0.49) 0.90 (0.84–0.94) 0.87 (0.80–0.92) 0.91 (0.85–0.95)
Specificitya
(95%CI)
0.61 (0.53–0.68) 0.78 (0.71–0.84) 0.45 (0.38–0.53) 0.92 (0.86–0.95) 0.74 (0.67–0.80) 0.42 (0.35–0.50) 0.49 (0.41–0.56) 0.39 (0.32–0.47)
PPVa
(95%CI)
0.60 (0.53–0.67) 0.68 (0.59–0.76) 0.55 (0.48–0.62) 0.69 (0.54–0.81) 0.55 (0.45–0.65) 0.56 (0.49–0.62) 0.58 (0.51–0.64) 0.55 (0.48–0.61)
NPVa
(95%CI)
0.74 (0.66–0.81) 0.70 (0.63–0.76) 0.76 (0.67–0.84) 0.60 (0.54–0.65) 0.61 (0.54–0.67) 0.84 (0.75–0.91) 0.82 (0.73–0.89) 0.84 (0.74–0.91)
Pos LRa
(95%CI)
1.88 (1.53–2.32) 2.68 (1.96–3.65) 1.51 (1.30–1.76) 2.73 (1.55–4.83) 1.53 (1.12–2.10) 1.55 (1.36–1.78) 1.69 (1.44–1.97) 1.49 (1.31–1.70)
Neg LRa
(95%CI)
0.43 (0.33–0.57) 0.53 (0.44–0.65) 0.38 (0.27–0.56) 0.84 (0.77–0.92) 0.81 (0.71–0.93) 0.23 (0.14–0.39) 0.27 (0.18–0.42) 0.23 (0.14–0.39)
AUCa for the model without cut-off-based on sum of scores
(95%CI)
0.73 (0.68–0.79) 0.73 (0.68–0.79) not possible to calculate not possible to calculate not possible to calculate 0.77 (0.72–0.82) 0.75 (0.70–0.80) 0.77 (0.71–0.82)
AUCa for the model with specific cut–off 0.67 (0.61–0.73) 0.68 (0.62–0.74) 0.64 (0.58–0.70) 0.57 (0.51–0.64) 0.57 (0.51–0.63) 0.66 (0.60–0.72) 0.68 (0.62–0.74) 0.65 (0.59–0.71)
  1. For pairway comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and AUC-values between the models, for outcome sepsis, see Additional file 25
  2. NEWS2, National Early Warning score 2; RETTS, Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System; CI, Confidence Interval; PPV, Positive Predictive Value; NPV, Negative Predictive Value; LR, Likelihood Ratio; AUC, Area Under the (receiver operating) Curve
  3. aWith respect to outcome sepsis within 36 h from emergency department arrival, among ambulance patients with clinically suspected infection