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Table 4 Clinical outcomes of the subgroups based on beta-blocker exposure prior to and after propensity score matching

From: Beta-blockade is not associated with improved outcomes in isolated severe extracranial injury: an observational cohort study

Variable Before matching After matching
BB+
(n = 73)
BB
(n = 625)
p BB+
(n = 73)
BB
(n = 73)
p
Infection, % (n) 30.1 (22) 27.7 (173) 0.767 30.1 (22) 27.4 (20) 0.851
Cardiac complication, % (n) 8.2 (6) 1.4 (9) 0.002 8.2 (6) 4.1 (3) 0.453
Respiratory complication, % (n) 6.8 (5) 5.3 (33) 0.583 6.8 (5) 8.2 (6) 1.000
Dialysis, % (n) 4.1 (3) 1.8 (11) 0.173 4.1 (3) 1.4 (1) 0.625
ICU LOS, mean [SD] 2.8 [6.1] 2.8 [5.4] 0.980 2.8 [8.7] 2.8 [8.7] 0.852
Hospital LOS, mean [SD] 14.6 [18.8] 15.2 [16.8] 0.771 14.6 [23.1] 13 [15] 0.569
Care level at day 30       
1, % (n) 16.4 (12) 16.2 (101) 1.000 13.7 (10) 15.1 (11) 1.000
2, % (n) 5.5 (4) 12.6 (79) 0.110 17.8 (13) 15.1 (11) 0.791
3, % (n) 1.4 (1) 0.5 (3) 0.358 15.1 (11) 20.5 (15) 0.503
4, % (n) 46.6 (34) 61.0 (381) 0.025 12.3 (9) 15.1 (11) 0.815
In-hospital mortality, % (n) 28.8 (21) 8.2 (51)  < 0.001 28.8 (21) 24.7 (18) 0.690
30-day mortality*, % (n) 30.1 (22) 8.5 (53)  < 0.001 30.1 (22) 26 (19) 0.701
90-day mortality**, % (n) 34.2 (25) 9.0 (56)  < 0.001 34.2 (25) 30.1 (22) 0.690
  1. Patients were matched using propensity score matching. Variables matched included age, injury mechanism, ISS, SBP, CCI and surgery required or not
  2. SD, standard deviation; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; SBP, Systolic Blood Pressure; ISS, Injury Severity Score; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index. Care level at day 30 is defined accordingly: 1, in hospital; 2, rehabilitation center; 3, care home; 4, at home
  3. *30-day mortality includes all deaths up to 30 days after suffered trauma
  4. **90-day mortality includes all deaths up to 90 days after suffered trauma (includes all patients that count towards 30-day mortality)