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Table 3 Demographics of the subgroups based on beta-blocker exposure prior to and after propensity score matching

From: Beta-blockade is not associated with improved outcomes in isolated severe extracranial injury: an observational cohort study

Variable Before matching After matching
BB+
(n = 73)
BB
(n = 625)
p BB+
(n = 73)
BB
(n = 73)
p
Age, mean [SD] years 69.5 [14.1] 43.2 [18.0]  < 0.001 69.5 [12.3] 70.2 [14.6] 0.628
Male sex, % (n) 67.1 (49) 80.8 (505) 0.010 67.1 (49) 68.5 (50) 1.000
GCS > 8, % (n) 91.8 (67) 85.6 (535) 0.204 91.8 (67) 84.9 (62) 0.302
SBP < 90 mmHg, % (n) 12.3 (9) 12.3 (77) 1.000 12.3 (9) 13.7 (10) 1.000
Penetrating injury, % (n) 6.8 (5) 12.0 (75) 0.266 6.8 (5) 5.5 (4) 1.000
ISS, mean [SD] 23.7 [7.8] 24.7 [10.9] 0.482 23.7 [12.3] 23.5 [9.8] 0.894
ISS 16–24, % (n) 64.4 (47) 63.8 (399) 1.000 64.4 (47) 71.2 (52) 0.442
ISS 25–49, % (n) 32.9 (24) 32.7 (201) 1.000 32.9 (24) 23.3 (17) 0.210
ISS 50–74, % (n) 2.7 (2) 1.9 (12) 0.650 2.7 (2) 4.1 (3) 1.000
CCI 0, % (n) 8.2 (6) 64.3 (401)  < 0.001 8.2 (6) 4.1 (3) 0.375
CCI 1, % (n) 13.7 (10) 14.9 (93) 0.924 13.7 (10) 15.1 (11) 1.000
CCI 2, % (n) 17.8 (13) 8.0 (50) 0.011 17.8 (13) 19.2 (14) 1.000
CCI 3, % (n) 17.8 (13) 4.8 (30)  < 0.001 17.8 (13) 15.1 (11) 0.791
CCI 4, % (n) 15.1 (11) 5.0 (31) 0.002 15.1 (11) 20.5 (15) 0.503
CCI 5, % (n) 12.3 (9) 1.8 (11)  < 0.001 12.3 (9) 15.1 (11) 0.815
CCI 6, % (n) 4.1 (3) 0.6 (4) 0.028 4.1 (3) 5.5 (4) 1.000
CCI 7, % (n) 2.7 (2) 0.5 (3) 0.088 2.7 (2) 2.7 (2) 1.000
CCI 8, % (n) 6.8 (5) 0.2 (1)  < 0.001 6.8 (5) 1.4 (1) 0.125
CCI 9, % (n) 1.4 (1) 0 (0) 0.105 6.8 (5) 1.4 (1) 0.125
Surgery required, % (n) 61.6 (45) 75.6 (471) 0.015 53.4 (39) 54.8 (40) 1.000
  1. Patients were matched using propensity score matching. Variables matched included age, injury mechanism, ISS, SBP, CCI and surgery required or not
  2. SD, standard deviation; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; SBP, Systolic Blood Pressure; ISS, Injury Severity Score; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index