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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients

From: Simultaneous external validation of various cardiac arrest prognostic scores: a single-center retrospective study

Variables Good (n = 33) Poor (n = 156) p value
Male, n (%) 22 (66.7%) 90 (57.7%) 0.214
Age, year 62 (54–69) 72 (55–83) 0.023
Cause of cardiac arrest, n (%)    < 0.001
Intrinsic cause    
 Cardiac 29 (87.9%) 48 (30.8%)  
 Cerebrovascular 0 (0.0%) 11 (7.1%)  
 Other 3 (9.1%) 51 (32.7%)  
External cause    
 Asphyxia 1 (3.0%) 27 (17.3%)  
 Neck hanging 0 (0.0%) 9 (5.8%)  
 Trauma 0 (0.0%) 7 (4.5%)  
 Other 0 (0.0%) 3 (1.9%)  
Collapse at public space, n (%) 17 (51.5%) 51 (32.7%) 0.032
Witness by bystander, n (%) 27 (81.8%) 100 (64.1%) 0.046
CPR initiated by bystander, n (%) 27 (81.8%) 77 (49.4%) < 0.001
Time records of EMS, min    
 Time from calling EMS to arrival at the scene 7 (6–8) 7 (6–9) 0.409
 Time from arrival at the scene to departure from the scene 14 (9–17) 14 (11–17) 0.403
 Time from departure from the scene to arrival at the ED 17 (5–20) 12 (8–17) 0.367
Primary ECG rhythm at the scene, n (%)    < 0.001
 VF/pulseless VT 22 (66.7%) 31 (19.9%)  
 Pulseless electrical activity 11 (33.3%) 52 (33.3%)  
 Asystole 0 (0%) 73 (46.8%)  
No flow time, min 1 (1–1) 1 (1–8) 0.033
Low flow time, min 16 (9–24) 30 (20–45) < 0.001
Blood gas analysis on arrival at the hospital    
 pH 7.225 (7.056–7.335) 6.914 (6.729–7.045) < 0.001
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 47.1 (38.6–60.0) 78.4 (53.2–104.5) < 0.001
 PaO2 (mmHg) 169.0 (101.0–282.0) 122.0 (59.0–342.5) 0.129
 HCO3 (mmol/L) 18.0 (15.5–21.4) 15.6 (12.6–19.3) 0.009
 Lactate (mmol/L) 7.0 (4.6–12.6) 11.8 (9.4–15.0) < 0.001
Laboratory data on arrival at the ED    
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.8 (11.2–14.6) 11.6 (10.2–13.2) 0.002
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 1.0 (0.8–1.5) 0.013
 Serum albumin (g/dL) 3.7 (3.3–4.0) 3.1 (2.7–3.5) < 0.001
Comorbid chronic kidney disease, n (%) 1 (3.0%) 15 (9.6%) 0.194
Adrenaline dosage until arrival at the hospital (mg) 0 (0–1) 1 (1–2) < 0.001
CPR by V-A ECMO, n (%) 7 (21.2%) 17 (10.1%) 0.216
Motor response score of the GCS in the ED after ROSC 1 (1–4) 1 (1–1) < 0.001
Therapeutic hypothermia, n (%) 17 (51.5%) 83 (53.2%) 0.395
  1. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, EMS emergency medical services, ED emergency department, ECG electrocardiogram, VF ventricular fibrillation, VT ventricular tachycardia, V-A ECMO veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation, GCS Glasgow coma scale, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation