Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of avalanche victims with or without posttraumatic stress disorder according the IES-R score

From: Survivors of avalanche accidents: posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and quality of life: a multicentre study

  PTSD +
n = 6
PTSD -
n = 49
p-value*
Patient characteristics
 Age, mean ± SD 36.8 ± 13.8 36.2 ± 11.5 0.59
 Men, n (%) 4 (66.7) 41 (83.7) 0.30
 Profession related to the mountains, n (%) 2 (33.3) 19 (38.8) 0.99
Family situation, n (%)
Surrounded 4 (66.7) 33 (67.3) 0.99
Isolated 2 (33.3) 16 (32.7)  
Psychiatric history, n (%) 0 (0) 5 (10.2) 0.99
Avalanche history, n (%) 1 (16.7) 7 (14.3) 0.99
Other mountain accident, n (%) 4 (66.7) 17 (34.7) 0.19
Other trauma, n (%) 2 (33.3) 12 (24.5) 0.64
Avalanche characteristics
 Time since the avalanche, mean in month ± SD 31.8 ± 15.6 27.3 ± 14.3 0.41
 Multiples involved victims, n (%) 4 (66.7) 27 (55.1) 0.69
 Death in the avalanche, n (%) 0 (0) 6 (12.2) 0.99
Burial, n (%)
Complete 5 (83.3) 14 (28.6) 0.02
Depth**, mean in meter ± SD 0.77 ± 0.25 0.93 ± 0.69 0.73
Time**, mean in minute ± SD 7.33 ± 2.52 12.58 ± 9.55 0.45
Activity during the avalanche, n (%)
Alpine skiing 2 (33.3) 1 (2.0) 0.03
Alpine off-piste skiing 2 (33.3) 20 (40.8) 0.99
Touring skiing 2 (33.3) 25 (51.0) 0.67
Alpinism 0 (0.0) 1 (2.0) 0.99
Hiking (with or without snowshoe) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.0) 0.99
Unknown 0 (0.0) 1 (2.0) 0.99
Clinical consequences and medical management
 Trauma lesion, n (%) 5 (83.3) 37 (75.5) 0.99
 ISS, n (%) ≥ 15 1 (16.7) 10 (20.4) 0.99
 Loss of consciousness, n (%) 2 (33.3) 9 (18.4) 0.59
Pain management, n (%)
Opioids 1 (16.7) 15 (31.9) 0.65
Ketamine 1 (16.7) 8 (17.0) 0.99
Intubation, n (%) 2 (33.3) 2 (4.1) 0.06
ICU, n (%) 2 (33.3) 7 (14.3) 0.25
Benzodiazepines, n (%) 1 (16.7) 3 (6.1) 0.37
Patient’s outcomes
Exit***, n (%)
Home 3 (75.0) 44 (91.7) 0.34
Rehabilitation 1 (25.0) 4 (8.3)  
Incomplete recovery, n (%) 1 (16.7) 15 (30.6) 0.66
  1. *Chi-2 or Fisher’s exact test when appropriate, Student t-test for means. **Depth and time of burial were reported only for victims who were completely buried. ***Not admitted or discharge after hospital stay. IES-R Impact of Event Scale Revised; PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder; SD Standard Deviation; ISS Injury Severity Score; ICU Intensive Care Unit