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Table 1 Characteristics of HHO Missions (n=11,228)

From: Incidence and challenges of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) rescue missions with helicopter hoist operations: analysis of 11,228 daytime and nighttime missions in Switzerland

Variable Day n= 9,963 (88.7%) Night n= 1,265 (11.3%)
Age, mean years ± SD 46.8 ±19.2 40.5 ±19.2
Neonate <1 day, n (%) 22 (0.2) 2 (0.2)
<18 years, n (%) 498 (5) 103 (8.1)
80+ years, n (%) 297 (3.0) 23 (1.8)
Unknown/Missing 57 (0.6) 12 (0.9)
Accident Occurrence, n (%)
Hiking 3,568 (35.8) 411 (32.5)
Climbing / mountaineering   1,522 (15.3) 245 (19.4)
Paragliding 402 (4.0) 27 (2.1)
Winter sports (skiing, freeriding, etc.) 975 (9.8) 123 (9.7)
Road accident 1,388 (13.9) 56 (4.4)
Other 1,393 (14.0) 306 (24.2)
Unknown / missing 715 (7.2) 97 (7.7)
NACA Score + , n (%)
0 = No injury or disease 2,259 (22.7) 610 (48.2)
1 = Injuries/diseases without any need for acute physician care 395 (4.0) 80 (6.3)
2 = Injuries/diseases requiring examination and therapy by a physician but hospital admission is not indicated 820 (8.2) 51 (4.0)
3 = Injuries/diseases without acute threat to life but requiring hospital admission 3,731 (37.5) 219 (17.3)
4 = Injuries/diseases that can possibly lead to deterioration of vital signs 1,466 (14.7) 149 (11.8)
5 = Injuries/diseases with acute threat to life 380 (3.8) 46 (3.2)
6 = Injuries/diseases requiring resuscitation 53 (0.5) 4 (0.3)
7 = Lethal injuries or diseases (with or without resuscitation attempts) 859 (8.6) 106 (8.4)
Diagnosis, n (%)
Trauma 6,430 (64.5) 528 (41.7)
Medical 1,119 (11.2) 104 (8.2)
Uninjured 2,414 (24.2) 633 (50.0)
Procedures Performed, n (%)
Analgesia 3,121 (31.3) 202 (16.0)
Peripheral vascular access 3,857 (38.7) 268 (21.2)
Endotracheal intubation 196 (2.0) 13 (1.0)
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 176 (1.8) 11 (0.9)
Mucosal atomisation device 73 (0.7) 11 (0.9)
Immobilisation vacuum mattress 1,994 (20.0) 185 (14.6)
Needle thoracostomy 19 (0.2) 1 (0.1)
Surgical thoracostomy 8 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
Mission Times, median minutes (IQR)
Emergency call to take-off at base 9 (7 to 15) 22 (11 to 36)
Take-off at base to hospital 52 (40 to 67) 69 (50 to 94)
Emergency call to hospital 67 (54 to 83) 83 (73 to 129)
Reached the hospital ≤60 min
Overall 2,668 (26.8) 71 (5.6)
NACA 1 - 3 (Day: n = 4946; Night: n = 350) 2,206 (44.6) 43 (12.3)
NACA 4 - 6 (Day: n = 1899; Night: n = 199) 400 (21.1) 18 (9.1)
  1. Data were complete if not otherwise stated. SD standard deviation; NACA National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; +Trauma patients were in significantly worse condition than non-trauma patients (p < 0.001)  in terms of NACA score.