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Table 1 Scores of the Cochrane tool of Bias

From: Education in the placement of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheters: a systematic review

  Selection bias Performance bias Detection bias Attrition bias Reporting bias Other bias
Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of participants and personnel Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Anything else, ideally pre-specified
Bahl [32] Low Low / (High) High Low ? / (High) Low
Bauman [61] / / / (High) High Low High High
Breslin [15] / / / (High) High High High Low
Desai [20] / / / (High) High Low High Low
Duran-Gehring [22] / / / (High) High Low Low Low
Feinsmith [52] / / / (High) High High High Low
Vitto [51] ? (High) ? (High) / (High) High High High High
Moore [53] / / / (High) High High High High
Oakley [60] / / / (High) High Low High High
Bair [69] Low Low / (High) High Low Low Low
Osborn [11] ? (High) ? (High) / (High) High Low High Low
Costantino [16] High / (High) High High High Low
Ault [43] / / / (High) High High High Low
Fürst [49] / / / (High) High Low High High
Clemmensen [34] Low High / (High) Low Low High Low
Blaivas [57] High High / (High) High Low High Low
Brannam [24] / / / (High) High High High Low
Carter [68] Low High / (High) High High High Low
Chinnock [58] / / / (High) High   Low High Low
Davis [39] High High / (High) High   Low High High
Stolz [42] / / / (High) High   High   High   Low
Durand-Bailloud [23] High High / (High) High   High   High   Low
Erickson [45] / / Low Low Low High   Low
Griffiths [44] Low Low / (High) High Low High Low
Oliveira [25] / / / (High) High High High Low
Jung [55] / / / (High) /
Leung [50] / / / (High) High High High Low
Tassone [35] Low High / (High) High Low Low Low
Adhikari [14] / / / (High) ? (High) ? (High) High Low
Blaivas [26] / / / (High) High High High Low
Schoenfeld [70] / / / (High) High Low High Low
Edwards [12] / / / (High) High High High High
Bridey [65] Low High / (High) High Low High Low
Good [47] / / / (High) High High High Low
Sou [64] / / / (High) High Low High Low
Mahler [59] Low Low / (High) High Low High Low
Shokoohiet [21] / / / (High) High High High Low
Costantino [19] High High / (High) High High High High
Doniger [63] Low Low / (High) High Low High Low
Panebianco [18] / / / (High) High High High Low
Maiocco [66] / / / (High) High High High   High
Reeves [36] / / / (High) Low Low High   Low
Primdahl [54] / / Low Low /
Primdahl [56] / / / (High) High Low High   Low
Chenkin [38] Low Low / (High) High High Low Low
Gopalasingam [67] / / / (High) High High Low Low
Salleras-Duran [17] / / / (High) High Low High Low
Stone [46] Low High / (High) High High High High
Carrie [13] / / / (High) High Low High Low
Partovi-Deilami [62] / / / (High) High High High High
Vinograd [71] / / / (High) High High High High
Dargin [72] / / / (High) High Low High High
  1. / = not relevant or not possible
  2. ? = Unclear