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Table 1 Comparison between the operative management and transcatheter arterial embolization group

From: Transcatheter arterial embolization for severe blunt liver injury in hemodynamically unstable patients: a 15-year retrospective study

  OM(n = 8) TAE(n = 54) P value All (n = 62)
Mean age (IQR) 35 (20–41) 28.5 (20–55) 1.00 29.5 (20–54)
Sex, (M/F) 7/1 42/12 0.51 49/13
Mechanism, n(%)    0.02  
 trafic accident 4 (50%) 46 (85%)   50 (81%)
 fall 4 (50%) 5 (9%)   9 (14%)
 compression 0 (0%) 3 (6%)   3 (5%)
AAST grade of liber injury, n(%)   0.21  
 gradeIII 3 (38%) 33 (61%)   36 (58%)
 grade IV 3 (38%) 18 (33%)   21 (34%)
 grade V 2 (25%) 3 (6%)   5 (8%)
sBP on arrival (mean) 98.3 ± 30.2 125.9 ± 26.7 0.01 122.7 ± 28.2
sBP on IR/Op room (mean) 106.4 ± 10.8 134.8 ± 3.9 0.02 131.5 ± 29.7
RR on arrival (meanl) 27.5 ± 4.4 25.2 ± 6.3 0.33 25.5 ± 6.1
GCS on arrival (median, IQR) 9.5 (6–15) 15 (14–15) 0.04 15 (13–15)
Base Excess on arrical (mean) −7.8 ± 4.4 −2.6 ± 3.6 < 0.01 −3.1 ± 4.0
Fibrinogen on arrival (mean) 215.3 ± 105.1 106.9 ± 14.7 0.47 241.1 ± 106.3
ISS (mean) 37.5 ± 16.9 24.9 ± 12.3 0.01 26.6 ± 13.5
TRISS (median, IQR) 0.78 (0.21–0.97) 0.96 (0.86–0.99) 0.05 0.95 (0.85–0.98)
Time from Door to start OM/TAE 120.0 ± 109.4 76.1 ± 34.9 0.02 81.8 ± 51.7
Time for OM/TAE 146.5 ± 73.9 52.5 ± 5.2 < 0.01 65.0 ± 49.4
Hemodynamically unstablea 7 (88%) 15 (28%) < 0.01 22 (35%)
In-hospital mortality 1 (13%) 3 (6%) 0.50 4 (6%)
Duration of ICU (median, IQR) 20.5 (10–35) 5 (3–9) 0.01 5.5 (3–12)
Length of stay (median, IQR) 62 (27–128) 23 (15–35) 0.03 26.5 (16–43)
Transfusion within first24h
 Units RBC (median, IQR) 11 (7–42) 0 (0–4.5) < 0.01 0 (0–10)
 Units FFP (median, IQR) 24 (10.5–43) 0 (0–10.5) < 0.01 0 (0–14)
 Units Plt (median, IQR) 0 (0–46) 0 (0–0) 0.10 0 (0–0)
Massive transfusionb 6 (75%) 12 (22%) < 0.01 18 (29%)
Overall complication 4 30 0.45 34
Biloma 1 (13%) 12 (22%) 0.51 13 (21%)
Hepatic ischemia 0 (0%) 7 (13%) 0.15 7 (11%)
Psuedoaneurysm 0 (0%) 3 (6%) 0.36 3 (5%)
Gallbladder necrosis 1 (13%) 1 (2%) 0.19 2 (3%)
AP shunt 1 (13%) 5 (10%) 0.78 6 (10%
Rebleeding 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 0.60 1 (2%)
Clinical failure 1 (13%) 1 (2%) 0.19 2 (3%)
  1. aHemodynamically unstable: A shock index > 1, despite initial infusion therapy, was defined as hemodynamic instability
  2. bMassive transfusion: ≥ 10 units of red blood cells