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Table 4 Trial outcomes

From: Randomised controlled trials in pre-hospital trauma: a systematic mapping review

Intervention category Primary outcome(s) Measurement Timing Proportion included in analysis %
Median (IQR)
Fluid therapy (n = 7) - Mortality and morbidity (n = 1)
- Survival (n = 1)
- Mortality – patients who died during follow up period (n = 1)
- Morbidity – postal questionnaire; Short Form with 36 items (SF-36) (n = 1)
- Survival (n = 1)
- 28 days after injury (n = 1)
- 6 months after injury (n = 1)
98.6% (68.2 – 99.8)
- Recovery after bran injury (n = 2) - Glasgow Outcome Score – Extended; 8-point scale (n = 2) - 6 months after injury (n = 2)
- Incidence of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (n = 1) - Presence of ARDS; based on American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS definition - 28 days after injury
- Early crystalloid volume (n = 1) - Defined as crystalloid infused from EMS arrival until end of study period - 28 days after injury
- Blood pressure (n = 1) - Systolic blood pressure in mmHg - Admission to hospital
Analgesia (n = 7) - Pain (n = 1) - Pain intensity; verbal rating scale (0 none to 3 severe) - 40 min after intervention 99.7% (96.3 – 100)
(Based on 6 reporting studies)
- Pain and anxiety (n = 1) - 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 no pain or no anxiety and 100 maximum pain or maximum anxiety) - Arrival at hospital
- Pain (n = 1) - Verbal numerical rating (0 no pain to 10 worst pain imaginable) - Arrival at hospital
- Pain (n = 1) - Tenderness measured by calibrated callipers in area of 1cm2 at the centre of injured area (marked on patient’s skin), measured between time of injury and 3 h thereafter - 7 days after injury
- Pain (n = 2) - Numeric rating scale (pain relief defined as 3 or lower of 10) (n = 2) - 15 min after intervention (n = 1)
- Arrival at hospital (n = 1)
- Pain (n = 1) - Presence of pain; Yes or No - 2 days after injury
Blood product (n = 3) - Mortality (n = 3) - Mortality – patients who died during follow up period - 28 days after injury (n = 1)
- 30 days after injury (n = 2)
93.8% (N/A)
Temperature management (n = 3) - Recovery after brain injury (n = 1) - Glasgow Outcome Score – Extended; 8-point scale - 6 months after injury 100% (N/A)
- Body core temperature, cold discomfort and vital signs (n = 1) - Temperature; closed ear canal temperature sensor (Smiths Medical, Ltd., UK)
- Cold discomfort; numerical rating scale (0 no cold to 10 unbearable cold), very cold to hot
- Vital signs; routine EMS equipment
- Arrival at hospital
- Improved patient satisfaction and reduced thermal discomfort, pain, and fear (n = 1) - Satisfaction; rating scale (very good to unacceptable)
- Pain; numerical rating scale (0 no pain to 5 worst imaginable pain)
- Fear; rating scale (no, mild or severe anxiety)
- Arrival at hospital
Airway management/ventilation (n = 2) - Recovery after brain injury (n = 1) - Glasgow Outcome Score – Extended; 8-point scale - 6 months after injury 74.45% (N/A)
- PaCO2 values as a marker of the adequacy of ventilation (n = 1) - PaCO2 between 35 and 45 mmHg; (i-STAT, Hewlett Packard, Böblingen, Germany) - Arrival at hospital
Model of care (n = 1) - Recovery after brain injury (n = 1) - Glasgow Outcome Score; 5-point scale - 6 months after injury 95.6%