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Table 2 Study Characteristics of Included Studies

From: Impact of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurologically intact survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review

Author, year of publication Study period Location Study design Data source / name of registry Population/ Inclusion criteria Dispatcher protocol Quality, NOS score
Chang et al., 2018 [37] 01.2012–12.2015 Korea, nationwide Retrospective cohort study Korean National OHCA Registry, EMS run sheets for ambulance information & EMS cardiac arrest and dispatcher CPR registries. Paediatric (≤18yo).
Excluded: If no EMS resuscitation effort; if missing information on bystander CPR or neurological outcome.
Pediatric BLS, including ventilations < 9 years of age. 7 (Selection 4; Comparability 0; Outcome 3)
Eisenberg et al., 1985 [17] 05.1981–12.1982 USA, Washington, King County Before-after study Database of King County Emergency Services Division, medical records & telephone recordings. Non-specified age; cardiac etiology. Standard BLS starting with ventilations. 8 (Selection 4; Comparability 1; Outcome 3)
Goto et al., 2014 [38] 01.2008–12.2012 Japan, nationwide Retrospective cohort study Fire and Disaster Management
Agency’s (FDMA) nationwide registry.
Paediatric (< 18 yo). Compression only.
Standard BLS to trained bystander.
7 (Selection 4; Comparability 0; Outcome 3)
Harjanto et al., 2016 [39] 04.2010–02.2013 Singapore Before-after study PAROS (Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study), telephone recordings, EMS- and patient records. Non-specified age; cardiac etiology.
Excluded: If a DNR order existed.
Compression only.
Standard BLS if suspected hypoxia.
8 (Selection 4; Comparability 1; Outcome 3)
Hasselqvist et al., 2015 [7] 01.1990–12.2011 Sweden, nationwide Retrospective cohort study Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Non-specified age; witnessed arrest. Instructions changed during study period. 8 (Selection 4; Comparability 1; Outcome 3)
Hiltunen et al., 2015 [40] 03.2010–08.2010 Finland, southern and eastern regions Prospective cohort study EMS registry with dispatch and EMS reports, The Finnish Population Information System & National Institute of Health and Welfare. Non-specified age; witnessed arrest; shockable rhythm; arrest recognized by the dispatcher. Compression only.
Standard BLS if suspected hypoxia.
9 (Selection 4; Comparability 2; Outcome 3)
Kuisma et al., 2005 [41] 01.1997–12.2002 Finland, Helsinki Retrospective cohort study EMS cardiac arrest registry. Non-specified age; witnessed arrest; cardiac etiology; ventricular fibrillation. From 2000 compression only.
Standard BLS if suspected hypoxia.
9 (Selection 4; Comparability 2; Outcome 3)
Lewis et al., 2013 [42] 01.2011–12.2011 USA, Washington, King County Retrospective cohort study King County EMS Department records. Adults; cardiac arrest recognised by dispatcher.
Excluded: If traumatic etiology; if arrest in a medical facility; if emergency call handled by a nonparticipating dispatch center.
Compression only. 8 (Selection 4; Comparability 1; Outcome 3)
Oman et al., 2016 [43] 01.2011–12.2012 Ireland, regional centre Retrospective cohort study OHCAR (Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Registry). Adult and paediatric; bystander next to the patient. Not specified. 7 (Selection 4; Comparability 0; Outcome 3)
Park et al., 2018 [44] 01.2012–12.2015 Korea, nationwide Retrospective cohort study EMS cardiac arrest & dispatcher CPR registry. Adult; cardiac etiology. Excluded: If no EMS resuscitation effort; if missing information on neurological outcome at discharge. Compression only. 8 (Selection 4; Comparability 1; Outcome 3)
Rea et al., 2001 [25] 1983–2000 USA, Washington, King County Retrospective cohort study Database of King County Emergency Services Division & patient records. Adult; cardiac etiology. Standard BLS starting with ventilations. 9 (Selection 4; Comparability 1; Outcome 3)
Shibahashi et al. 2019 [45] 01.2010–12.2016 Japan, nationwide Retrospective cohort study Fire and Disaster Management Agency’s (FDMA) nationwide registry. Adult. Excluded: if transported by a physician-manned ambulance; if resuscitation was not attempted; if missing outcomes. Not specified. 6 (Selection 4; Comparability 0; Outcome 2)
Viereck et al., 2017 [46] 01.2013–12.2013 Denmark, capital region Retrospective cohort study Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry, the Mobile Critical Care Unit database & Danish Civil Registration System. Non-specified age; bystander CPR provided; EMS treated. Excluded: If missing information on or time for initiation of bystander CPR; if missing emergency call record. Compression only.
Standard BLS if trained bystander.
7 (Selection 4; Comparability 0; Outcome 3)
Wu et al., 2018 [47] 01.2011–12.2014 USA, Arizona Retrospective cohort study Save Hearts in Arizona Registry and Education (SHARE) Program. Adult; cardiac etiology. Excluded: if arrest in medical facility; if a DNR order existed; if EMS witnessed, if missing emergency call record; if call was transferred from another agency. Compression only. 8 (Selection 4; Comparability 1; Outcome 3)
  1. Standard BLS includes all protocols including compressions and ventilations incl. protocols starting with ventilations and pediatric BLS
  2. BLS basic life support, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, DNR do not resuscitate, EMS emergency medical services, OHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, NOS Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, yo years old