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Table 3 Diagnostic accuracy of emergency physicians´ 4 h presumptive diagnoses compared to final diagnoses

From: Point-of-care ultrasound of the heart and lungs in patients with respiratory failure: a pragmatic randomized controlled multicenter trial

Diagnoses Final diagnosis positive / 4 h positive Sensitivity% (95% CI) Specificity% (95% CI) PPV
% (95% CI)
NPV
% (95% CI)
Interv. Control Interv. Control Interv. Control Interv. Control Interv. Control
COPD with exacerbation 27/29 28/24 89 (71–98) 75 (55–89) 94 (86–98) 96 (89–99) 83 (64–94) 88 (68–97) 96 (89–99) 91 (83–97)
Asthma with exacerbation 2/2 3/3 0 (0–84) 67 (9–99) 98 (93–100) 99 (94–100) 0 (0–84) 67 (9–99) 98 (93–100) 99 (94–100)
Interstitial lung disease 3/1 5/2 33 (1–91) 0 (0–52) 100 (97–100) 98 (93–100) 100 (3–100) 0 (0–84) 98 (93–100) 95 (88–98)
Pneumonia 26/34 34/40 89 (70–98) 88 (73–97) 86 (77–93) 86 (76–93) 68 (50–83) 75 (59–87) 96 (88–99) 94 (85–98)
Pulmonary edema 17/10 6/4 53 (28–77) 33 (4–78) 99 (94–100) 98 (93–100) 90 (56–100) 50 (7–93) 92 (84–96) 96 (90–99)
Para-pneumonic effusion 14/14 14/7 71 (42–92) 36 (13–65) 96 (89–99) 98 (92–100) 71 (42–92) 71 (29–96) 96 (89–99) 91 (83–96)
Pleural empyemaa 1/0 0/0
Pulmonary embolism 3/11 2/7 100 (29–100) 100 (16–100) 92 (85–97) 96 (89–98) 27 (6–61) 29 (4–71) 100 (96–100) 100 (96–100)
Pneumothoraxa 0/0 1/3 100 (3–100) 98 (93–100) 33 (1–91) 100 (96–100)
Systolic heart failure 17/16 22/18 77 (50–93) 59 (36–79) 97 (91–99) 94 (87–98) 81 (54–96) 72 (47–90) 95 (89–99) 90 (81–95)
Non-systolic heart failure 5/6 1/2 60 (15–95) 100 (3–100) 97 (92–99) 99 (95–100) 50 (12–88) 50 (1–99) 98 (93–100) 100 (97–100)
Acute myocardial infarction 1/2 2/9 0 (0–98) 50 (1–99) 98 (93–100) 92 (85–97) 0 (0–84) 11 (0–48) 99 (95–100) 99 (94–100)
Anemia 5/1 6/1 20 (1–72) 0 (0–46) 100 (96–100) 99 (95–100) 100 (3–100) 0 (0–98) 96 (91–99) 94 (88–98)
Malignancy 8/2 19/7 25 (3–65) 26 (9–51) 94 (96–100) 98 (92–100) 100 (16–100) 71 (29–96) 94 (88–98) 86 (77–92)
Other diagnoses 33/29 35/31 58 (39–75) 60 (42–76) 86 (76–93) 86 (75–93) 66(46–82) 68 (49–83) 83(71–90) 81 (70–89)
  1. Intention to treat population
  2. Intervention (n = 106), control (n = 105)
  3. Abbreviation: Interv Intervention
  4. aToo few ratings to perform diagnostic accuracy calculations