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Table 2 Specifics on stress, teams, performance and training

From: Learning about stress from building, drilling and flying: a scoping review on team performance and stress in non-medical fields

Study Conceptualizing stress Effect of stress in teams Strategies to deal with stress Training possibilities
Gardner, 2012 [33] Performance pressure Focus on general expertise. Planning, knowledge coordination and morale-building communication. Presence, recognition and acknowledgement of domain-specific expertise. Learn to recognize specific knowledge.
Savelsbergh et al., 2012 [34] Role pressure Inhibition of team learning behaviours. Focus on primary task processes. Sharing experiences, collective reflection and feedback. Time for team learning: collective sense making of problems.
Gervits et al., 2016 [35] Time pressure Increase of disfluency rate and speech rate. Fewer self-repairs. Grounding within the team (seeking information, engaging, monitoring) No specific training strategies mentioned in study.
Long et al., 2014 [36] Time pressure Increase of task conflicts due to divergent views. Formation of team mental model (prevention of conflict and divergent views) No specific training strategies mentioned in study.
Bourgeon et al., 2013 [37] Crisis: unexpected and ambiguous situation Rigid behaviour, due to lack of cognitive flexibility. Achievement of shared representation of the situation. Development of training specifically focused on cognitive flexibility through communication.
Ellis et al., 2011 [38] Time pressure Lower levels of accuracy of mental models and less information allocation. Increase in accuracy of mental model and decrease in tension after cross training. Cross training in order to learn about roles and responsibilities of teammates.
Kaplan et al., 2013 [39] Time pressure Development of negative emotions. Reduction negative emotions through a certain base level of positive affect within the team. Considerations about team composition based on the affective dispositions of team members. Training not possible.
Pearsall et al., 2009 [40] Time pressure and role pressure In presence of avoidant coping strategy: lower levels of transactive memory and more psychological withdrawal. Use of problem solving coping strategy to improve team performance and reach higher levels of transactive memory. Learning to adopt problem solving coping strategy.
Price et al., 2017 [41] Performance pressure, through affective stressors Reduction of objective situational awareness (SA). Possible overconfidence in SA. Experience of team engagement results in less overconfidence in SA and less risk-taking. Foster perception of team engagement.
Stachowski et al., 2009 [42] Time pressure and crisis More information requests within team, and less information transfers. Best performance in stress by teams with fewer, shorter, less complex and more flexible interaction patterns. Training to foster brief team interaction patterns, without sacrificing shared team knowledge.
Maruping et al., 2015 [43] Time pressure and performance pressure Narrow focus on task execution and withdrawal from task management. Improvement of processes like planning, evaluation and monitoring in the presence of strong team leadership. Training of processes like planning, evaluation and monitoring progress.
Espevik et al., 2013 [44] Time pressure Influences coordination and cooperation in teams in absence of team familiarity Knowledge about team members. Potential effects of cross training are discussed.
Espevik et al., 2011 [45] Crisis In absence of team familiarity less adaptive behaviour and less closed-loop communication. Familiarity between team members. Training with unfamiliar team members (cross training)
Xu et al., 2018 [46] Task stress (i.e. performance pressure) and technological stress Lower levels of positive affect (PA) and increase in reaction time. Higher mean levels of PA due to positional rotation training. Positional rotation training (variant of cross training) to enhance shared mental model.
Wang et al., 2020 [47] Time pressure and crisis Narrowing of scope and less understanding of others’ operational status Best performance in stress by teams showing adaptive workload management, and proactive performance monitoring. Teamwork training to develop and strengthen coordination and adaptation.
Recognition of behaviour patterns of team members.