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Table 1 First-pass success and overall time to intubation in various subgroups

From: Analysis of tracheal intubation in out-of-hospital helicopter emergency medicine recorded by video laryngoscopy

  n (%) FPS [%] overall intubation time, median (range) [s]
Predictors of difficult airway management
•Difficult airway characteristics* 163 (38.1) 87.1 34 (12 to 305)
•Facial trauma/facial burns 63 (14.7) 87.3 32 (13 to 148)
•Obesity** 123 (28.7) 88.6 31 (12 to 235)
Location
•indoors, ambulance car 250 (60.4) 92.8 30 (11 to 165)
•street, woods, public places, alpine environment 142 (34.3) 81.7 33 (12 to 305)
•snow, ski slope, glacier 22 (5.3) 72.7 30 (16 to 91)
Patient positioning
•lying on the ground 237 (55.4) 84.0 33 (11 to 305)
•elevated (on a stretcher, bed etc.) 182 (42.5) 92.9 29 (12 to 471)
Indication
•trauma 132 (30.8) 86.4 30 (12 to 149)
•non-trauma 96 (22.4) 93.3 29 (14 to 127)
•cardiopulmonary resuscitation 191 (44.6) 84.8 32 (11 to 305)
Environment
•Rain/snowfall 10 (2.3) 100 30 (14 to 45)
•Darkness 39 (9.1) 92.3 27 (12 to 65)
•Direct solar irradiation 109 (25.5) 80.7 30 (12 to 172)
Specific video laryngoscopic problems
•Fogging 106 (24.8) 61.3 39 (12 to 305)
•Blood 65 (15.1) 81.5 44 (14 to 149)
•Vomit 45 (10.5) 91.1 37 (14 to 137)
•Saliva 76 (17.8) 89.5 33 (12 to 235)
  1. *intubation with cervical collar or under manual in-line stabilization, mouth opening < 4 cm
  2. **rated subjectively by operator as relevant overweight with the potential to impede the intubation process
  3. p < 0.05, exact binominal test for single proportion
  4. p < 0.001, exact binominal test for single proportion