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Table 1 Patient characteristics, the circumstance of the fall and fall-related injuries for the total population of patients with a fall-related ED visit and stratified by cause of the fall

From: Geriatric screening, fall characteristics and 3- and 12 months adverse outcomes in older patients visiting the emergency department with a fall

  All (N = 393) Cause of fall
Extrinsic cause (N = 195) Intrinsic cause (N = 115) Unexplained fall (N = 25)
Patient characteristics
 Age (years), median (IQR) 80 (76–86) 80 (75–86) 80 (74–86) 81 (77–88)
 Male, n (%) 150 (38.2) 66 (33.8) 51 (44.3) 10 (40.0)
 Living independently, n (%) 345 (87.8) 180 (92.3) 92 (80.0) 21 (84.0)
 Arrival by ambulance, n (%) 238 (60.6) 114 (58.5) 82 (71.3) 15 (60.0)
Triage urgency, n (%)
 > 1 h (green) 140 (35.6) 81 (41.5) 26 (22.6) 6 (24.0)
 < 1 h (yellow) 214 (54.5) 102 (52.3) 71 (61.7) 16 (64.0)
 < 10 min (orange) 39 (9.9) 12 (6.2) 18 (15.7) 3 (12.0)
Chief complaint, n (%)
 Minor trauma 299 (76.1) 176 (90.3) 62 (53.9) 12 (48.0)
 Malaise 23 (5.9) 3 (1.5) 16 (13.9) 3 (12.0)
 Loss of consciousness 33 (8.4) 2 (1.0) 24 (20.9) 7 (28.0)
 Others 38 (9.7) 14 (7.2) 13 (11.3) 3 (12.0)
Treating specialism, n (%)
 Surgery 251 (63.9) 158 (81.0) 48 (41.7) 8 (32.0)
 Internal medicine 54 (13.7) 10 (5.1) 27 (23.5) 5 (20.0)
 Others 88 (22.4) 27 (13.8) 40 (34.8) 12 (48.0)
Use of walking device, n (%) 193 (49.1) 74 (38.3) 68 (59.1) 14 (56.0)
Polypharmacy, n (%)a 192 (48.9) 90 (46.2) 57 (49.6) 14 (56.0)
Katz ADL score, median (IQR) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–2) 1 (0–2)
6-CIT score, median (IQR) 6 (2–11) 4 (2–8) 8 (4–17) 7 (3–13)
APOP screening result, n (%)
 Low risk 301 (77.0) 164 (85.0) 77 (67.0) 19 (76.0)
 High risk 90 (23.0) 29 (15.0) 38 (33.0) 6 (24.0)
Circumstance of fall
 Location of fall, n (%)
  Indoors 195 (61.3) 69 (41.8) 83 (83.0) 18 (81.8)
  Outdoors 123 (38.7) 96 (58.2) 17 (17.0) 4 (18.2)
 Activity prior to fall, n (%)
  Walking 110 (39.6) 81 (43.8) 25 (42.4) 3 (25.0)
  Cycling/driving (mobility) scooter 46 (16.5) 45 (24.3) 1 (1.7) 0 (0.0)
  Walking up/down stairs/stairlift 28 (10.1) 15 (8.1) 6 (10.2) 3 (25.0)
  Getting in/out bed/chair/couch/bath 25 (9.0) 9 (4.9) 10 (16.9) 1 (8.3)
  Going to the toilet 15 (5.4) 1 (0.5) 8 (13.6) 3 (25.0)
  Exercise 10 (3.6) 8 (4.3) 1 (1.7) 0 (0.0)
  Others 44 (15.8) 26 (14.1) 8 (13.6) 2 (16.7)
Fall-related injuriesb
 Type of injury, n (%)
  Minor injury 163 (41.5) 106 (54.4) 29 (25.2) 7 (28.0)
  Head injury 135 (34.4) 75 (38.5) 34 (29.6) 12 (48.0)
  Fracture 186 (47.3) 121 (62.1) 35 (30.4) 5 (20.0)
  Hip fracture 53 (13.5) 32 (16.4) 16 (13.9) 1 (4.0)
  No injury 57 (14.5) 3 (1.5) 39 (33.9) 9 (36.0)
 Location of injury, n (%)
  Head/face 60 (17.9) 18 (9.4) 24 (31.6) 8 (50.0)
  Thorax/abdomen/spine 14 (4.2) 5 (2.6) 2 (2.6) 1 (6.3)
  Upper extremity 72 (21.4) 46 (24.0) 13 (17.1) 0 (0.0)
  Lower extremity 102 (30.4) 57 (29.7) 24 (31.6) 3 (18.8)
  Multiple locations 88 (26.2) 66 (34.4) 13 (17.1) 4 (25.0)
  1. Abbreviations: N Number, IQR Interquartile range, ADL Activities of daily living, 6-CIT Six-item cognitive impairment test, APOP Acutely Presenting Older Patient screening
  2. a≥5 self-reported medications
  3. bNumbers do not add up to 100% because some people had multiple types and locations of injuries
  4. Missings: 58 cause of the fall, 2 use of walking device, 4 Katz ADL score, 40 6-CIT score, 2 APOP screening result, 75 location of fall, 115 activity prior to fall