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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies identified in the systematic review

From: Intraosseous versus intravenous vascular access during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

First author, publication year Study period/ region Patient number Main population characteristics Selection of intervention and comparator EMSe response time, mean or median (min) Time to intervention adjusted in analysis
Inclusion criteria Age, mean or median Male, % Witnessed arrest, % Bystander CPR,b % Shockable rhythms, %
Clemency et al., 2017 [17] 2013–2015/ USA 1340 Adult OHCAa 62 64 49 27 15 First attempted IOc and IVd access NA No
Feinstein et al., 2017 [18] 2012–2014/ USA 1800 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 64 63 57 69 28 Actual IO and IV access for drug use 5.9 Yes (time to establishment of vascular access adjusted)
Kawano et al., 2018 [19] 2007–2009/ USA & Canada 13,155 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 68 66 52 38 26 First attempted IO and IV access 5.5 No
Mody et al., 2019 [20] 2011–2015/ USA & Canada 19,731 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 68 65 24 46 22 First attempted IO and IV access 5.4 Yes (time to medications administration adjusted)
Nguyen et al., 2019 [21] 2013–2017/ USA 795 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 65 62 NA NA 21 First attempted IO and IV access 12.9 No
Baert et al., 2020 [22] 2011–2017/ France 28,856 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 67 70 73 50 13 Actual IO and IV access for drug use 10 Yes (time to medications administration adjusted)
Daya et al., 2020 [23] 2012–2015/ USA & Canada 3019 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 63 80 70 57 100 Actual IO and IV access for drug use 5.7 Yes (time to establishment of vascular access adjusted)
Nolan et al., 2020 [24] 2014–2017/ UK 7317 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 70 65 61 59 18 Actual IO and IV access for drug use 7.4 No
Zhang et al., 2020 [25] 2011–2015/ USA & Canada 35,733 Adult non-traumatic OHCA 66 66 48 44 22 First attempted IO and IV access 5.1 Yes (time to establishment of vascular access adjusted)
  1. aOHCA out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  2. bCPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  3. cIO intraosseous
  4. dIV intravenous
  5. eEMS emergency medical service