Skip to main content

Table 3 Diagnostic accuracy and agreement between the EMS personnel and blinded reviewer (n = 406 ultrasound examinations)

From: Quality of focused thoracic ultrasound performed by emergency medical technicians and paramedics in a prehospital setting: a feasibility study

Diagnostic category Frequency (=n) Cohen’s kappa Agreement
Normala
  EMS: 345 0.44 OA: 87.7%
  Reviewer: 365   SPA: 93.0%
  Both: 330   SNA: 51.0%
Interstitial syndrome
  EMS: 42 0.26 OA: 89.9%
  Reviewer: 17   SPA: 30.5%
  Both: 9   SNA: 94.6%
Possible pneumothorax
  EMS: 7 0.01 OA: 97.3%
  Reviewer: 4   SPA: 0%
  Both: 0   SNA: 98.6%
Pleural effusion
  EMS: 24 0.69 OA: 96.3%
  Reviewer: 27   SPA: 70.6%
  Both: 18   SNA: 98.0%
  1. Frequency, Cohen’s kappa value, and agreement in percentage. aNormal = without interstitial syndrome, signs of pneumothorax, or pleural effusion. OA overall agreement, SPA specific positive agreement, SNA specific negative agreement