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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics and pain

From: Nasal nalbuphine analgesia in prehospital trauma managed by first-responder personnel on ski slopes in Switzerland: an observational cohort study

Variable Total n = 267
Age in years
 Mean, ± SD 33.3 ± 18.2
  < 20, n (%) 84 (31.5)
 20–60, n (%) 163 (61.1)
  ≥ 60, n (%) 20 (7.5)
Male sex, n (%) 157 (58.8)
Pain (NRS)
 Initial, median (IQR) 8 (7 to 9)
 After nalbuphine 5 (4 to 7)
 Missing, n (%) 19 (7.1)
Pain reduction (NRS)
 Median (IQR) −3 (−4 to −1)
 Clinically relevant pain reduction, n (%) 145 (58.5)
 Missing, n (%) 19 (7.1)
Dose of Nalbuphine
 5 mg, n (%) 24 (9.0)
 10 mg, n (%) 128 (47.9)
 15 mg, n (%) 35 (13.1)
 20 mg, n (%) 80 (30.0)
Location of Trauma
 Shoulder, n (%) 63 (23.6)
 Upper arm, n (%) 22 (8.2)
 Elbow, n (%) 1 (0.4)
 Forearm or hand, n (%) 32 (12.0)
 Hip or femur, n (%) 22 (8.2)
 Knee, n (%) 32 (12.0)
 Lower leg, n (%) 39 (14.6)
 Foot, n (%) 1 (0.4)
 Neck, n (%) 0 (0.0)
 Back, n (%) 8 (3.0)
 Thorax or clavicula, n (%) 18 (6.7)
 Abdomen, n (%) 1 (0.4)
 Missing, n (%) 28 (10.5)
Adverse Events
 None, n (%) 252 (94.4)
 Nausea or vomiting, n (%) 3 (1.1)
 Retching, n (%) 5 (1.9)
 Nasal discomfort, n (%) 3 (1.1)
 Major adverse events, n (%) 0 (0)
Technical device problem, n (%) 4 (1.5)
  1. Footnote:
  2. No missing data if not stated explicitly. SD Standard Deviation, IQR Inter Quartile Range