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Table 3 Cardiac arrest characteristics of patients with severe respiratory failure with and without COVID-19

From: Effects of COVID-19 on in-hospital cardiac arrest: incidence, causes, and outcome – a retrospective cohort study

Parameters All patients
(n = 43)
Severe respiratory failure no-COVID-19
(n = 31)
Severe respiratory failure – COVID-19
(n = 12)
p-value
Demographics
 Age, years median (IQR) 65 (50–75) 65 (50–77) 65 (56–74) 0.565
 Sex, male, n (%) 34 (79) 25 (81) 9 (75) 0.471
 BMI, kg/m2 median (IQR) 27 (24–31) 26 (24–30) 28 (26–33) 0.314
 Charlson comorbidity index, pts. median (IQR) 3 (1.5–6) 4 (2.5–6) 2 (1–2) 0.003
Characteristics of respiratory failure
 Respiratory support (before CA)
  Non-invasive ventilation n (%) 7 (16) 3 (10) 4 (33) 0.125
  Mechanical ventilation n (%) 22 (51) 17 (55) 5 (42) 0.148
 Cause of respiratory failure (at CA)
  Pneumonia n (%) 37 (86) 25 (81) 12 (100) 0.001
  ARDS n (%) 24 (56) 12 (39) 10 (83) 0.000
 Horowitz index (PaO2/FiO2-ratio)
  Worst Horowitz index, mmHg, median (IQR) 84 (57–148) 90 (57–149) 82 (59–107) 0.503
  Horowitz index after CA, mmHg, median (IQR) 97 (76–145) 101 (78–152) 89 (69–19) 0.007
 ARDS Management
  Prone Positioning n (%) 8 (19) 2 (6) 6 (50) 0.437
  Neuromuscular Blockage n (%) 6 (14) 1 (3) 5 (42) 0.306
  Corticosteroids n (%) 11 (26) 4 (13) 7 (58) 0.563
  Inhaled Vasodilators n (%) 9 (21) 3 (10) 6 (50) 0.437
Cardiac arrest Characteristics
Location     0.009
  ICU, n (%) 37 (86) 25 (81) 12 (100)  
  Non-ICU, n (%) 6 (14) 6 (19) 0 (0)  
Initial Rhythm - Shockable (VT/VF), n (%) 6 (14) 6 (19) 0 (0) 0.255
Sustained ROSC, n (%) 40 (93) 28 (90) 12 (100) 0.364
Epinephrine – total dose, mg, median (IQR) 1 (1–2) 2 (1–2.5) 1 (1–1.3) 0.310
Resuscitation time, min; median (IQR)
  No-Flow 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 1
  Total resuscitation time 4 (1.8–8.5) 5 (2–10) 1.5 (0.5–3.5) 0.008
Targeted temperature management, n (%) 10 (23) 8 (26) 2 (17) 0.339
E-CPR, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
ICU – Characteristics
Severity of illness
  SAPS II (pts.) median (IQR) 44 (36–52) 42 (35–49) 50 (40–56) 0.485
  SOFA – after CA (pts.) median (IQR) 14 (12–16) 14 (12–17) 15 (13–16) 0.202
  SOFA – 24 h after CA (pts.) median (IQR) 13 (11–16) 13 (11–15) 14 (10–16) 0.145
Lab values – post CA median (IQR)
  Lactate – highest after CA, mmol/l 4.6 (1.6–8.5) 4.8 (1.5–10) 4.2 (3.1–4.8) 0.765
  pH – lowest after CA 7.21 (7.15–7.32) 7.22 (7.06–7.32) 7.2 (7.19–7.3) 0.889
Procedures/Complications – post CA
  Vasopressor therapy, n (%) 40 (93) 29 (94) 11 (92) 0.505
  Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 22 (51) 12 (39) 10 (83) 0.009
  Coronary angiography, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1
  Hypoxic liver injury, n (%) 11 (26) 7 (23) 4 (33) 0.201
  Cholestasis – bilirubin > 2 mg/dl, n (%) 15 (58) 10 (32) 5 (42) 0.190
  1. Abbreviations: CA Cardiac arrest; cm Centimeter; E-CPR Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ICU Intensive care unit; IQR Inter quartile range; kg Kilogram; n Number; min Minute; mg Milligram; mmol/l Millimole per liter; pts. Points; ROSC Return of spontaneous circulation; SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; VF Ventricular Fibrillation; VT Ventricular Tachycardia; MAP Mean arterial pressure; COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019; IHCA In-hospital cardiac arrest; BMI Body mass index