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Table 2 Cardiac arrest and ICU-characteristics of the study cohort stratified in the 2019 (No-COVID-19) and 2020 (COVID-19) period

From: Effects of COVID-19 on in-hospital cardiac arrest: incidence, causes, and outcome – a retrospective cohort study

Parameters All patients
(n = 177)
2019 – No-COVID-19
(n = 84)
2020 – COVID-19
(n = 93)
p-value
Cardiac arrest Characteristics
Location of IHCA     0.009
  ICU, n (%) 83 (47) 31 (37) 52 (56)  
  Non-ICU, n (%) 94 (53) 53 (63) 41 (44)  
Initial rhythm - shockable (VT/VF), n (%) 42 (24) 15 (18) 27 (29) 0.058
Defibrillation, n (%) 50 (28) 17 (20) 33 (35) 0.018
Sustained ROSC, n (%) 142 (80) 65 (77) 77 (83) 0.237
Cardiac re-arrest, n (%) 53 (30) 27 (32) 26 (30) 0.329
Presumed cardiac cause, n (%) 66 (37) 35 (42) 31 (33) 0.161
Epinephrine – total dose, mg, median (IQR) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) 0.978
Resuscitation time, min; median (IQR)
  No-flow 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.300
  Total resuscitation time 5 (2–17) 4 (1.5–14) 5 (2–20) 0.204
Targeted temperature management, n (%) 56 (32) 27 (32) 29 (31) 0.509
Use of mechanical compression system, n (%) 19 (11) 12 (14) 7 (8) 0.114
E-CPR, n (%) 9 (5) 5 (6) 4 (4) 0.436
ICU – Characteristics
Severity of illness
  SAPS II (pts.) median (IQR) 45 (35–55) 44 (35–56) 47 (35–54) 0.837
  SOFA – after CA (pts.) median (IQR) 12 (9–14) 11 (8–13) 12 (10–14) 0.060
  SOFA – 24 h after CA (pts.) median (IQR) 11 (7–14) 11 (7–14) 11 (8–14) 0.923
Physiological parameters – post CA
  Heart rate – after CA median (IQR) 96 (77–115) 94 (77–110) 96 (77–125) 0.232
  MAP – after CA median (IQR) 73 (63–88) 76 (62–92) 72 (63–82) 0.324
Lab values – post CA median (IQR)
  Lactate – highest after CA, mmol/l 4.5 (1.9–9.1) 4.8 (2–9.1) 4.4 (1.9–8.2) 0.965
  pH – lowest after CA 7.26 (7.07–7.36) 7.26 (7.07–7.34) 7.26 (7.10–7.36) 0.755
Procedures/Complications – post CA
  Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 124 (70) 55 (65) 69 (74) 0.031
  Vasopressor therapy, n (%) 120 (68) 49 (58) 71 (76) 0.025
  Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 26 (15) 11 (13) 15 (16) 0.243
  Coronary angiography, n (%) 21 (12) 14 (17) 7 (8) 0.050
  Hypoxic liver injury, n (%) 35 (20) 16 (19) 19 (20) 0.484
  Cholestasis – bilirubin > 2 mg/dl, n (%) 45 (25) 22 (26) 23 (25) 0.480
  1. Abbreviations: CA Cardiac arrest; E-CPR Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation; ICU Intensive care unit; IQR Inter quartile range; n Number; min Minute; mg Milligram; mmol/l Millimole per liter; pts. Points; ROSC Return of spontaneous circulation; SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; VF Ventricular Fibrillation; VT Ventricular Tachycardia; MAP Mean arterial pressure; COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019; IHCA In-hospital cardiac arrest