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Table 2 Diagnostic accuracy of test methods. Agreement between LVOT VTI and test methods in identifying fluid responders is displayed using Cohen’s kappa values. The agreement was poor to null across the above four methods. FR: fluid responders, NR: fluid non-responders, LVOT VTI: left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral, CCABF: common carotid artery blood flow, SSAD: suprasternal aortic Doppler, PVUT: plethysmography with vascular unloading technique, IVCCI: inferior vena cava collapsibility index

From: Emergency department non-invasive cardiac output study (EDNICO): an accuracy study

  LVOT VTI FR LVOT VTI NR
Total 20 13
CCABF FR 9 7
CCABF NR 11 6
Specificity 46.2% (95% CI: 19.2–74.9%)
Sensitivity 45% (95% CI: 23.1–68.5%)
Kappa −0.0839
Total 19 13
SSAD FR 12 5
SSAD NR 7 8
Specificity 61.5% (95% CI: 31.6–86.1%)
Sensitivity 63.2% (95% CI: 38.4–83.7%)
Kappa 0.2411
Total 20 13
Bioreactance FR 10 7
Bioreactance NR 10 6
Specificity 46.2% (95% CI:19.2–74.9%)
Sensitivity 50% (95% CI: 27.2–72.8%)
Kappa −0.0370
Total 17 12
PVUT FR 7 6
PVUT NR 10 6
Specificity 50% (95% CI: 21.1–78.9%)
Sensitivity 41.2% (95% CI: 18.4–67.1%)
Kappa −0.0841
Total 19 11
IVCCI FR 9 4
IVCCI NR 10 7
Specificity 63.6% (95% CI: 30.8–89.1%)
Sensitivity 47.4% (95% CI: 24.4–71.1%)
Kappa 0.0987