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Table 2 Characteristics of 23 included studies

From: Comparison of adverse events between video and direct laryngoscopes for tracheal intubations in emergency department and ICU patients–a systematic review and meta-analysis

StudiesType of studiesSettingsNumber (VL/DL)ParticipantsType of VLsExperience of operatorsDifficult Airway ExcludedAnesthesia
Campagne et al., 2008Prospective OSED280 (63/210)AdultsGVLUnclearUnknownUnclear
De Jong et al., 2013Prospective before–after OSICU210 (140/70)AdultsMcGrath MACMost are inexperiencedNoMost RSI
Driver et al., 2016RCTED198 (103/95)AdultsC-MACMost experiencedNoMost RSI
Driver et al., 2018OSED823 (428/395)AdultsC-MACInexperiencedUnclearMost RSI
Gao et al., 2018RCTICU163 (81/82)AdultsUEscopeExperiencedNoSedatives without any NMBA
Goksu et al., 2016RCTED150 (75/75)Age ≥ 16 yearsC-MACMost inexperienced (ED residents and attending physicians)NoAll used RSI except patients with cardiac arrest.
Griesdale et al., 2012RCTICU40 (20/20)Age ≥ 16 years without cardiac arrest. Patients with cervical spine precautions, anticipated difficult intubation, oxygen saturation < 90%, or systolic blood pressure < 80 mmHg despite resuscitation were excluded.GVLInexperiencedYesAll RSI
Hypes et al., 2016OSICU809 (673/136)Nasotracheal intubations, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy or supraglottic devices, and intubations performed by medical students or attending physicians were excluded.GVL, C-MAC, KingVision, and McGrath MACInexperiencedNoMost RSI
Janz et al., 2016RCTICU150 (74/76)AdultMcGrath MAC and GVLInexperiencedNoAll used sedatives and most used NMBAs
Khandelwal et al., 2014RetrospectiveIn-hospital, out-of-OR420 (49/371)AdultGVLMost experiencedNoUnclear
Kim et al., 2016RCTED140 (71/69)Adult patients with CPRGVLExperiencedNoNone
Kory et al., 2013RetrospectiveICU and medical or surgical wards138 (78/50)Not mentionedGVLInexperienced operatorsNoNMBAs were not used routinely.
Lakticova et al., 2015OSICU392 (252/140)Not mentionedGVLRelatively inexperiencedNoGraded intravenous sedation without NMBAs
Lascarrou et al., 2017RCTICU371 (186/185)Adult patients without CPRMaGrath MacMost inexperiencedNoAll RSI
Lee et al., 2014RetrospectiveGeneral wards229 (121/108)Patients in general wards with acute deterioration in clinical status or requiring CPRGVL or AirwayScopeInexperienced (50.2%) and experienced (49.8%)UnclearProbably none
Noppens et al., 2012Prospective, before-after studyAnesthetist-lead surgical ICU230 (117/113)AdultC-MACMost experiencedNoAll used RSI except patients with cardiac arrest.
Okamoto et al., 2018Multicentre, prospective, OSED3360 (613/2747)Adult patients with cardiac arrestC-MAC,McGrath, AirwayScope, and GVLMost inexperiencedNoProbably none
Park et al., 2015Historically controlled clinical designED83 (49/34)All adults out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients requiring emergency tracheal intubation during CPR in the EDGVLInexperiencedUnclearProbably none
Sakles et al., 2015RetrospectiveED3425 (1895/1530)All patients in whom intubation attempts were made in the ED by EM residents with a DL or VL.GVL or C-MACInexperiencedNoMost RSI
Silverberg et al., 2015quasi-RCTICU117 (57/60)Patients with a known history of difficult intubation, presence of limited mouth opening, oropharyngeal masses, or swollen tongue, or oxygen saturation less than 92% after bag valve mask ventilation were excluded.GVLInexperiencedYesSedatives were chosen as needed, but NMBA was not used.
Sulser et al., 2016RCTED147 (74/73)Adult patients without CPRC-MACExperiencedNoAs needed
Vassiliadis et al., 2015RetrospectiveED619 (353/266)ED patientsC-MACMost inexperiencedNoMost RSI
Yeatts et al., 2013RCTED623 (303/320)CPR patients were excluded.GVLExperiencedNoAll RSI
  1. VL, videolaryngoscopy; DL, direct laryngoscope; RCT, randomized controlled trial; OS, Observational study; ED, emergency department; EM, emergency medicine; ICU, intensive care unit; OR, operating room; GVL, GlideScope videolarygoscope; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; RSI, rapid sequence induction; NMBA, neuromuscular blocking agent; LOS, length of stay