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Table 2 Characteristics of 23 included studies

From: Comparison of adverse events between video and direct laryngoscopes for tracheal intubations in emergency department and ICU patients–a systematic review and meta-analysis

Studies Type of studies Settings Number (VL/DL) Participants Type of VLs Experience of operators Difficult Airway Excluded Anesthesia
Campagne et al., 2008 Prospective OS ED 280 (63/210) Adults GVL Unclear Unknown Unclear
De Jong et al., 2013 Prospective before–after OS ICU 210 (140/70) Adults McGrath MAC Most are inexperienced No Most RSI
Driver et al., 2016 RCT ED 198 (103/95) Adults C-MAC Most experienced No Most RSI
Driver et al., 2018 OS ED 823 (428/395) Adults C-MAC Inexperienced Unclear Most RSI
Gao et al., 2018 RCT ICU 163 (81/82) Adults UEscope Experienced No Sedatives without any NMBA
Goksu et al., 2016 RCT ED 150 (75/75) Age ≥ 16 years C-MAC Most inexperienced (ED residents and attending physicians) No All used RSI except patients with cardiac arrest.
Griesdale et al., 2012 RCT ICU 40 (20/20) Age ≥ 16 years without cardiac arrest. Patients with cervical spine precautions, anticipated difficult intubation, oxygen saturation < 90%, or systolic blood pressure < 80 mmHg despite resuscitation were excluded. GVL Inexperienced Yes All RSI
Hypes et al., 2016 OS ICU 809 (673/136) Nasotracheal intubations, flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy or supraglottic devices, and intubations performed by medical students or attending physicians were excluded. GVL, C-MAC, KingVision, and McGrath MAC Inexperienced No Most RSI
Janz et al., 2016 RCT ICU 150 (74/76) Adult McGrath MAC and GVL Inexperienced No All used sedatives and most used NMBAs
Khandelwal et al., 2014 Retrospective In-hospital, out-of-OR 420 (49/371) Adult GVL Most experienced No Unclear
Kim et al., 2016 RCT ED 140 (71/69) Adult patients with CPR GVL Experienced No None
Kory et al., 2013 Retrospective ICU and medical or surgical wards 138 (78/50) Not mentioned GVL Inexperienced operators No NMBAs were not used routinely.
Lakticova et al., 2015 OS ICU 392 (252/140) Not mentioned GVL Relatively inexperienced No Graded intravenous sedation without NMBAs
Lascarrou et al., 2017 RCT ICU 371 (186/185) Adult patients without CPR MaGrath Mac Most inexperienced No All RSI
Lee et al., 2014 Retrospective General wards 229 (121/108) Patients in general wards with acute deterioration in clinical status or requiring CPR GVL or AirwayScope Inexperienced (50.2%) and experienced (49.8%) Unclear Probably none
Noppens et al., 2012 Prospective, before-after study Anesthetist-lead surgical ICU 230 (117/113) Adult C-MAC Most experienced No All used RSI except patients with cardiac arrest.
Okamoto et al., 2018 Multicentre, prospective, OS ED 3360 (613/2747) Adult patients with cardiac arrest C-MAC,McGrath, AirwayScope, and GVL Most inexperienced No Probably none
Park et al., 2015 Historically controlled clinical design ED 83 (49/34) All adults out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients requiring emergency tracheal intubation during CPR in the ED GVL Inexperienced Unclear Probably none
Sakles et al., 2015 Retrospective ED 3425 (1895/1530) All patients in whom intubation attempts were made in the ED by EM residents with a DL or VL. GVL or C-MAC Inexperienced No Most RSI
Silverberg et al., 2015 quasi-RCT ICU 117 (57/60) Patients with a known history of difficult intubation, presence of limited mouth opening, oropharyngeal masses, or swollen tongue, or oxygen saturation less than 92% after bag valve mask ventilation were excluded. GVL Inexperienced Yes Sedatives were chosen as needed, but NMBA was not used.
Sulser et al., 2016 RCT ED 147 (74/73) Adult patients without CPR C-MAC Experienced No As needed
Vassiliadis et al., 2015 Retrospective ED 619 (353/266) ED patients C-MAC Most inexperienced No Most RSI
Yeatts et al., 2013 RCT ED 623 (303/320) CPR patients were excluded. GVL Experienced No All RSI
  1. VL, videolaryngoscopy; DL, direct laryngoscope; RCT, randomized controlled trial; OS, Observational study; ED, emergency department; EM, emergency medicine; ICU, intensive care unit; OR, operating room; GVL, GlideScope videolarygoscope; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; RSI, rapid sequence induction; NMBA, neuromuscular blocking agent; LOS, length of stay