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Table 3 Baseline characteristics and outcomes, treatment with vs. without ICP monitoring

From: Hospital-level intracranial pressure monitoring utilization and functional outcome in severe traumatic brain injury: a post hoc analysis of prospective multicenter observational study

Variables Overall n = 427 ICP (+) group n = 192 ICP (−) group n = 235 P value Missing data
Age, years, median [IQR] 65 [46, 77] 65 [45, 76] 66 [50, 79] 0.173 0
Male sex, n (%) 282 (66) 121 (63) 161 (69) 0.259 0
Prescribing anticoagulant drugs, n (%) 19 (4.4) 7 (3.6) 12 (5.1) 0.492 0
Prescribing antiplatelet dugs, n (%) 36 (8.4) 17 (8.9) 19 (8.1) 0.861 0
Glasgow Coma Scale score, median [IQR]      0
 Overall score 6 [3, 7] 6 [3, 7] 6 [3, 7] 0.566  
 Motor score 3 [1, 4] 3 [1, 4] 4 [1, 4.] 0.614  
Pupillary reflex, n (%)     0.002 0
 None 110 (26) 39 (20) 71 (30)   
 One 91 (21) 55 (29) 36 (15)   
 Both 226 (53) 98 (51) 128 (55)   
Hypotension, n (%) 60 (14) 16 (8) 44 (19) 0.002 0
Body temperature, °C, median [IQR] 36.2 [35.8, 36.8] 36.2 [35.8, 36.8] 36.2 [35.8, 36.8] 0.876 34
Marshall CT classification, n (%)     0.001 0
 diffuse injury I 9 (2.1) 2 (1.0) 7 (3.0)   
 diffuse injury II 96 (22.5) 29 (15.1) 67 (28.5)   
 diffuse injury III 48 (11.2) 24 (12.5) 24 (10.2)   
 diffuse injury IV 11 (2.6) 5 (2.6) 6 (2.6)   
 evacuated mass 175 (41.0) 98 (51.0) 77 (32.8)   
 non-evacuated mass 88 (20.6) 34 (17.7) 54 (23.0)   
Injury Severity Score, median [IQR] 25 [25, 35] 26 [25, 34] 25 [22, 37] 0.441 0
Isolated traumatic brain injury, n (%) 173 (41) 77 (40) 96 (41) 0.921 0
Cause of injury, n (%)     0.703 2
 Motor vehicle 27 (6.3) 12 (6.3) 15 (6.4)   
 Motorcycle 53 (12.4) 25 (13.1) 28 (12.0)   
 Bicycle 34 (8.0) 42 (22.0) 48 (20.5)   
 Pedestrian 90 (21.1) 17 (8.9) 17 (7.3)   
 High-level fall 115 (27.0) 54 (28.3) 61 (26.1)   
 Ground-level fall 79 (18.5) 28 (14.7) 51 (21.8)   
 Others 18 (4.2) 13 (6.8) 14 (6.0)   
Treatment at university hospitals, n (%) 257 (60) 146 (76.0) 111 (47.2) < 0.001 0
GOS at 6 months after injury, n (%)     0.001 0
 Good recovery 75 (17.6) 28 (14.6) 47 (20.0)   
 Moderate disability 62 (14.5) 36 8 (18.8) 26 (11.1)   
 Severe disability 40 (9.4) 21 (10.9) 19 (8.1)   
 Vegetable state 41 (9.6) 27 (14.1) 14 (6.0)   
 Death 209 (48.9) 80 (41.7) 129 (54.9)   
Favorable outcome at 6 months after injury, n (%) 137 (32) 64 (33) 73 (31) 0.677 0
  1. IQR interquartile range, CT computed tomography, ICP intracranial pressure, GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale