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Table 3 ALS characteristics

From: Assessment of changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices and outcomes on 1005 victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the COVID-19 outbreak: registry-based study

  All patients
N = 2625
COVID-19 period
N = 1005
Non-COVID-19 period
N = 1620
p-value
Times, mean ± SD, min
 Time between T0 and MMT arrival 22 ± 15 23 ± 18 22 ± 13 0.461
 Time between T0 and intubation 28 ± 13 28 ± 13 28 ± 13 0.568
 Time between T0 and epinephrine 26 ± 12 27 ± 13 26 ± 13 0.400
 Time between T0 and ROSC or death 42 ± 22 44 ± 24 42 ± 21 0.342
Resuscitation practices
First recorded cardiac rhythm, No./total (%) 0.226
- Asystole 2041/2618 (72.0) 796/1003 (79.4) 1245/1615 (77.1)  
- VF/pulseless VT 232/2618 (8.8) 87/1003 (8.7) 145/1615 (9.0)  
- PEA 206/2618 (7.8) 78/1003 (7.8) 128/1615 (7.9)  
- ROSC due to BLS 139/2618 (5.3) 42/1003 (4.2) 97/1615 (6.0)  
 ALS implemented, No./total (%) 1891/2625 (72.0) 676/1005 (67.3) 1215/1620 (75.0) < 0.001
 Epinephrine injected, No./total (%) 1720/2623 (65.6) 620/1004 (61.8) 1100/1619 (67.9) 0.001
 Total dose of epinephrine, mean ± SD, mg 5 ± 4 5 ± 3 5 ± 4 0.189
Injection route, No./total (%) < 0.001
- PIV 1632/2625 (62.2) 582/1005 (57.9) 1050/1620 (64.8)  
- IO 199/2625 (7.6) 71/1005 (7.1) 128/1620 (7.9)  
- Other 16/2625 (0.6) 8/1005 (0.8) 8/1620 (0.5)  
- None 778/2625 (29.6) 344/1005 (34.2) 434/1620 (26.8)  
 Tracheal intubation, No./total (%) 1738/2625 (66.2) 619/1005 (61.6) 1119/1620 (69.1) < 0.001
 Impossible intubation, No./total (%) 46/1053 (4.4) 15/375 (4.0) 31/678 (4.6) 0.754
 Shock by AED, No./total (%) 394/2625 (15.0) 143/1005 (14.2) 251/1620 (15.5) 0.038
  1. Data are expressed as the number/total number (frequency %) for qualitative variables or mean ± standard deviation for quantitative variables
  2. MMT mobile medical team, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, VF/pulseless VT ventricular fibrillation/pulseless tachycardia, PEA pulseless electrical activity, BLS basic life support, ALS advanced life support, PIV peripheral intravenous access, IO intraosseous, AED automated external defibrillator