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Table 3 Lactate, Potassium, Troponin, Creatinine, and pH reported as Mean ± SD or Mean (IQR) unless specified. Values reported as Lactate: mmol/L; Potassium mmol/L; Troponin ng/mL; Creatinine mg/dL

From: Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA): update and insights into current practices and future directions for research and implementation

Author, Year N REBOA Use (min) Follow Up (Hours) Survival (%) End Study Values of Ischemic Markers and Significance vs. Control
Lactate Potassium Troponin Creatinine pH
Avaro, et al. 2011 [83] 8 (25) 60 1 20 9.59 ± 1.19 6.08 ± 0.44
Markov, et al. 2013 [82] 6 (24) 30 54 100 1.5m 3.8 ± 0.4 0.04 ± 0.05 1.1 ± 0.4
6 (24) 90 54 100 1.5m 4.0 ± 0.5 0.16 ± 0.30 1.2 ± 0.2
Scott, et al. 2013 [84] 16 60 48 NR 0.63 (0.21)c 7.66 (1.45)c * 1.7 (0.8)c 7.4c
0.62 (0.08)d 6.10 (3.27)d * 1.5 (0.2)d 7.4d
Morrison, et al. 2014 [81] 8 (24) 60 48 87.3 9.0 ± 4.5 5.2 ± 0.8 * 2.6 ± 0.5 * 7.22 ± 1.45
Morrison, et al. 2014 [81] 6 (20) 30 48 100 0.5 ± 0.1 0.28 ± 0.24 7.46 ± 0.02
8 (20) 60 48 100 0.6 ± 0.2 0.44 ± 0.38 7.40 ± 0.10
6 (20) 90 48 100 0.6 ± 0.1 0.38 ± 0.49 7.43 ± 0.04
Tibbets, et al. 2018 [85] 12 (18) 45 4.75 100 6h, m 1.7 ± 0.1h, m 7.4h, m
3i, m 1.8 ± 0.1i, m 7.5i, m
Williams, et al. 2018 [86] 6 (12) 45 4.75 NR 5.2 (3.7–6.8)j * 5.2 (3.7–6.8)j
3.0 (2.4–3.6)k * 1.66 (1.63–1.69)k
Beyer, et al. 2019 [77] 6 (18) 45 4.75 NR 6.26 ± 5.35 *
Kauvar, et al. 2019 [9, 87] 8 (21) 60 6 37.5 19.2 ± 2.3 * 5.1 ± 0.21 58.1 ± 28.6 * 4.0 ± 0.37 *
Kuckelman, et al. 2019 [88] 5 (20) 60 2 20 12.8 1.8 7.22
Sadeghi, et al. 2020 [89] 6 (18) 30 3 100 5.4 (2.4–8.4) NR 7.5
Singer, et al. 2020 [90] 20 37a 4b NR 10f 5f ~ 7.4f
7g 5.5g ~ 7.4g
Yamashiro, et al. 2020 [91] 6 (11) 30 3 100 3.4 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.1 7.43 ± 0.02
Yamashiro, et al. 2020 [91] 3 (12) 30 4 66.6 NR 1.2 NR
5 (12) 60 4 60 5.7 * 1.7 * 7.2 *
  1. NR Not reported; * denotes p < 0.05 – Significance measured between REBOA and control (non REBOA) group unless specified
  2. Notes: a: Mean Value; b: Hours post-flight; c: Measured by commercial device; d: Measured by prototype device; e: Commercial device measurements higher than prototype device; f: Flight Group; g: No flight group; h: Zone I application; i: Zone III application; j: REBOA group; k: EVAC group; l: Baseline v. study endpoint; m: Exact values not reported; data only shown graphically; n: pREBOA significantly lower than REBOA; o: REBOA statistically higher than pREBOA - p value not reported