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Table 2 Ambulance service characteristics – training and occupation of EMS ambulance personnel

From: Description of Emergency Medical Services, treatment of cardiac arrest patients and cardiac arrest registries in Europe

Country Ambulance personnel ALS trained? What is the occupation of the majority of EMS personnel? Do physicians provide patient care as part of EMS? Can ALS trained ambulance personnel perform the following interventions without a physician present on scene?
Secure airways with supraglottic or endotracheal tubes Intravenous or intraosseous drug therapy Manual defibrillation Semi-automatic defibrillation
Albania Some Emergency physician Sometimes No Yes Yes Yes
Austria All EMT Routinely Yes Yes No Yes
Belgium Some EMT Routinely No No No Yes
Cyprus All Emergency nurse / nurse No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Czech Republic Some Emergency nurse / nurse Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
Denmark All Paramedic Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
Finland Some Paramedic Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
France Some Other Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
Germany All Paramedic Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
Greece Some EMT Sometimes No No No No
Hungary Some Emergency nurse / nurse Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
Iceland Some EMT Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ireland All Paramedic Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Italy Some Emergency nurse / nurse Routinely Yes Yes No Yes
Lithuania Some Emergency nurse / nurse Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Luxembourg Some Paramedic Routinely Yes No No Yes
Netherlands All Emergency nurse / nurse Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Norway All Paramedic Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Poland All Paramedic Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Portugal Some EMT Routinely Yes Yes No Yes
Romania Some Emergency nurse / nurse Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Serbia Some Emergency physician Routinely No No No No
Slovakia All Paramedic Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slovenia All Emergency nurse / nurse Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
Spain All Emergency physician Routinely No Yes Yes Yes
Sweden All Emergency nurse / nurse Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Switzerland All Paramedic Routinely Yes Yes Yes Yes
United Kingdoma Some Paramedic Sometimes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. The answers are for the entire country which means that the answers “Some” and “Sometimes” indicate this is not implemented in all EMS services in the entire country
  2. Abbreviations: EMS Emergency Medical Services, EMT Emergency Medical Technician, ALS – Advanced Life Support
  3. aUnited Kingdom excluding Wales