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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients infected with COVID-19

From: Exploiting an early warning Nomogram for predicting the risk of ICU admission in patients with COVID-19: a multi-center study in China

  Training Cohort (%) Validation Cohort (%)
Characteristic ICU
(N = 68)
Non-ICU
(N = 695)
P ICU
(N = 29)
Non-ICU
(N = 295)
P
Age, median (IQR), years 66.5(51–76) 50(36–63) 0.000 65(51–76) 49(38–63) 0.000
Gender    0.016    0.066
 Male 43(63.2) 328(47.2)   19(65.5) 135(45.8)  
 Female 25(36.8) 367(52.8)   10(34.5) 160(54.2)  
Temperature on Admission    0.317    0.021
  ≤ 36.1 3(0.6) 45(6.5)   6(20.7) 14(4.7)  
 36.2–38 56(82.4) 593(85.3)   19(65.5) 251(85.1)  
  ≥ 38.1 9(1.2) 57(8.2)   4(13.8) 30(10.2)  
Heart Rate, bmp    0.370    0.001
  < 100 52(76.5) 568(81.7)   16(55.2) 242(82)  
  ≥ 100 16(23.5) 127(18.3)   13(44.8) 53(18)  
Respiratory Rate    0.000    0.000
  < 22 36(52.9) 605(87.1)   14(48.3) 235(79.7)  
  ≥ 22 32(47.1) 90(12.9)   15(51.7) 60(20.3)  
Systolic Blood Pressure, mmHg    0.322    0.554
  ≤ 100 4(5.9) 20(2.9)   0(0) 12(4.1)  
  > 100 64(94.1) 675(97.1)   29(100) 283(95.9)  
Drinking    0.311    1.000
 Former and/or Current 54(79.4) 590(84.9)   25(86.2) 251(85.1)  
 Never 14(20.6) 105(15.1)   4(13.8) 44(14.9)  
Smoking    0.005    0.766
 Former and/or Current 49(72.1) 596(85.8)   26(89.7) 253(85.8)  
 Never 19(27.9) 99(14.2)   3(10.3) 42(14.2)  
Time interval from the onset of symptoms to admission 0.306   1.000
  > 7 days 16(23.5) 123(17.7)   5(17.2) 51(17.3)  
  ≤ 7 days 52(76.5) 572(82.3)   24(82.8) 244(82.7)  
Obesity    1.000    1.000
 Yes 0(0) 4(0.6)   0(0) 2(0.7)  
 No 68(100) 691(99.4)   29(100) 293(99.3)  
Symptoms
 Fever    0.005    0.580
  Yes 54(79.4) 427(61.4)   21(72.4) 193(65.4)  
  No 14(20.6) 268(38.6)   8(27.6) 102(34.6)  
 Cough    0.075    1.000
  Yes 48(70.6) 408(58.7)   19(65.5) 192(65.1)  
  No 20(29.4) 287(41.3)   10(34.5) 103(34.9)  
 Dyspnea    0.000    0.004
  Yes 26(38.2) 126(18.1)   12(41.4) 51(17.3)  
  No 42(61.8) 569(81.9)   17(58.6) 244(82.7)  
 Fatigue    0.029    0.336
  Yes 34(50) 249(35.8)   14(48.3) 110(37.3)  
  No 34(50) 446(64.2)   15(51.7) 185(62.7)  
 Sore Throat    1.000    0.205
  Yes 8(11.8) 78(11.2)   0(0) 25(8.5)  
  No 60(88.2) 617(88.8)   29(100) 270(91.5)  
 Nasal Discharge    0.501    0.471
  Yes 1(1.5) 27(3.9)   0(0) 14(4.7)  
  No 67(98.5) 668(96.1)   29(100) 281(95.3)  
 Wheeze    0.285    0.000
  Yes 10(14.7) 68(9.8)   10(34.5) 26(8.8)  
  No 58(85.3) 627(90.2)   19(65.5) 269(91.2)  
 Chest Distress    0.687    1.000
  Yes 13(19.1) 114(16.4)   7(24.1) 68(23.1)  
  No 55(80.9) 581(83.6)   22(75.9) 227(76.9)  
 Muscle and Joint Pain    0.848    1.000
  Yes 8(11.8) 71(10.2)   3(10.3) 31(10.5)  
  No 60(88.2) 624(89.8)   26(89.7) 264(89.5)  
 Headache    0.749    0.794
  Yes 3(4.4) 43(6.2)   3(10.3) 21(7.1)  
  No 65(95.6) 652(93.8)   26(89.7) 274(92.9)  
 Nausea and Vomiting    1.000    1.000
  Yes 2(2.9) 25(3.6)   1(3.4) 13(4.4)  
  No 66(97.1) 670(96.4)   28(96.6) 282(95.6)  
 Diarrhea    1.000    1.000
  Yes 6(8.8) 64(9.2)   4(13.8) 36(12.2)  
  No 62(91.2) 631(90.8)   25(86.2) 259(87.8)  
Comorbidities
 Asthma    0.790    1.000
  Yes 0(0) 8(1.2)   0(0) 3(1)  
  No 68(100) 687(98.8)   29(100) 292(99)  
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 0.112   0.934
  Yes 4(5.9) 14(2)   1(3.4) 4(1.4)  
  No 64(94.1) 681(98)   28(96.6) 291(98.6)  
 Hypertension    0.011    0.410
  Yes 26(38.2) 163(23.5)   9(31) 66(22.4)  
  No 42(61.8) 532(76.5)   20(69) 229(77.6)  
 Chronic Respiratory Disease    0.003    0.165
  Yes 7(10.3) 19(2.7)   2(6.9) 4(1.4)  
  No 61(89.7) 676(97.3)   27(93.1) 291(98.6)  
 Cardiovascular System Disease    0.000    0.566
  Yes 14(20.6) 43(6.2)   3(10.3) 17(5.8)  
 No 54(79.4) 652(93.8)   26(89.7) 278(94.2)  
 Chronic Kidney Disease    0.000    0.000
  Yes 6(8.8) 8(1.2)   4(13.8) 3(1)  
  No 62(91.2) 687(98.8)   25(86.2) 292(99)  
 Chronic Liver Disease    1.000    0.624
  Yes 5(7.4) 50(7.2)   3(10.3) 18(6.1)  
  No 63(92.6) 645(92.8)   26(89.7) 277(93.9)  
 Cerebrovascular Disease    0.326   
  Yes 2(2.9) 6(0.9)   
  No 66(97.1) 689(99.1)   
 Autoimmune Disease    0.013    1.000
  Yes 4(5.9) 8(1.2)   0(0) 5(1.7)  
  No 64(94.1) 687(98.8)   29(100) 290(98.3)  
 Hematological Disease    0.149    0.425
  Yes 1(1.5)) 0(0)   1(3.4) 1(0.3)  
  No 67(98.5) 695(100)   28(96.6) 294(99.7)  
 Stroke History    0.015    0.802
  Yes 5(7.4) 13(1.9)   1(3.4) 3(1)  
  No 63(92.6) 682(98.1)   28(96.6) 292(99)  
 Malignancy    0.341    1.000
  Yes 3(4.4) 13(1.9)   1(3.4) 8(2.7)  
  No 65(95.6) 682(98.1)   28(96.6) 287(97.3)  
 Diabetes    0.064    0.812
  Yes 14(20.6) 83(11.9)   2(6.9) 30(10.2)  
  No 54(79.4) 612(88.1)   27(93.1) 265(89.8)  
Exposure to source of transmission within past 14 days
 Recently visited COVID-affected area 0.266    0.921
  Yes 63(92.6) 606(87.2)   26(89.7) 257(87.1)  
  No 5(7.4) 89(12.8)   3(10.3) 38(12.9)  
 Contact history of COVID-19    0.019    0.044
  Yes 12(17.6) 224(32.2)   3(10.3) 88(29.8)  
  No 56(82.4) 471(67.8)   26(89.7) 207(70.2)