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Table 2 Patients who do not require immobilisation must meet all five of the following criteria [23]

From: Multiple trauma management in mountain environments - a scoping review

• awake and alert,
• not intoxicated
• no painful distracting injuries
• no tenderness at the posterior midline along the cervical spine
• no focal neurologic deficit
  1. All other patients require spinal motion restriction with stabilisation of the entire body, unless they have an ABCD instability, in which case minimal spinal motion restriction and immediate transfer may be preferred