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Table 4 Patients’ characteristics, injury history, clinical findings and outcomes according to the cutaneous impact location with univariate analysis

From: Cutaneous impact location: a new tool to predict intracranial lesion among the elderly with mild traumatic brain injury?

  Low risk group
(N = 125)
Medium risk group
(N = 151)
High risk group
(N = 89)
P value
Age (years, SD) 87.8 (7.9) 85.7 (8.3) 85.9 (9.3) 0.28
Clinical Frailty scale (mean, SD) 4.6 (1.6) 4.7 (1.7) 4.4 (1.6) 0.98
Residence (n, %)     0.22
 Nursing home 57 (45.6) 55 (36.4) 32 (35.9)  
 Home 68 (54.4) 96 (63.6) 57 (64.1)  
Medication (n, %)     
 Antiplatelet 46 (28.8) 58 (38.4) 33 (37.1) 0.96
 Anticoagulant 47 (37.6) 50 (33.1) 31 (34.8) 0.74
 Psychoactive drugs 52 (41.6) 57 (37.8) 29 (32.6) 0.41
Ground-level fall (n, %)     0.31
 Mechanical fall 53 (42.4) 73 (48.3) 38 (42.7)  
 Unknow 49 (39.2) 54 (35.8) 30 (33.7)  
 Faintness or vertigo 9 (7.2) 6 (4.0) 11 (12.4)  
 Syncope 3 (2.4) 6 (4.0) 3 (3.4)  
Symptoms after injury (n, %)     
 Unknown 18 (14.4) 22 (14.6) 6 (6.7) 0.16
 Amnesia 20 (16.0) 15 (9.9) 13 (14.6) 0.29
 Headache 13 (10.4) 12 (7.9) 10 (11.2) 0.01
 Loss of consciousness 12 (9.6) 6 (3.9) 8 (9.0) 0.14
 Vomiting 4 (3.2) 1 (0.7) 6 (6.7) 0.03
 Seizure 0 1 (0.7) 0 0.53
Clinical examination (n, %)     
 Glasgow score     0.1
 15 112 (89.6) 132 (87.4) 82 (92.1)  
 14 10 (8.0) 19 (12.6) 7 (7.9)  
 13 3 (2.4) 0 0  
 Wound requiring suture 28 (22.4) 68 (45.0) 35 (39.3) <  0.001
 Hematoma 38 (30.4) 49 (32.5 32 (35.9) 0.7
 Cutaneous abrasion 21 (18.8) 34 (25.0) 22 (26.2) 0.38
Intracranial lesion (n, %)     0.16
 Subdural hematoma 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 10 (11.2)  
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 0 6 (4.0) 3 (3.4)  
 Intraparenchymal hematoma 0 2 (1.3) 2 (2.2)  
Outcome (n, %)     0.51
 Hospitalization 33 (26.4) 42 (27.8) 29 (32.6)  
 ICU 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 0