Skip to main content

Table 1 A summary of the relevant findings in the selected articles included in our review

From: Is prehospital use of active external warming dangerous for patients with accidental hypothermia: a systematic review

Article ID Aetiology Temp. Case description AER Intervention Complication Quality score
Coopwood et al. 1974 [15] Outdoor exposure, overnight 25 °C, rec Male, 70 y; responsive to pain, unobtainable BP Electric blanket Initial increase in BP and Trec, then sudden drop in Trec and BP - > VF - > † 17 / 30
Strapazzon et al. 2012 [16] Avalanche burial,
2 h
25 °C, tymp Male, 42 y; GCS 10, breathing, palpable radial Forced air warming Atrial fibrillation Pulmonary oedema
Hypotension Hypoglycaemia
21 / 30
Emslie-Smith et al. 1958 [17] Outdoor exposure, unknown duration 33 °C, rec Female, 64 y; stupor, breathing, hypothyroidism Electric blanket Coma, hypotension Bronchopneumonia
14 / 30
Article ID Mean age Mean temp AER modality Number of patients
AER (Mortality in %)
Number of patients PER
(Mortality in %)
Quality score
Duguid et al. 1961 [18] 75.3 years 26.5 °C, rec Not specified 6 (100%) 17 (58.8%) 8 / 22
Article ID Number of subjects
(# treated with AER)
Temp AER Modality AER mortality
(PER Mortality)
Comments Quality score
Fruehan, 1960 [19] 8 (4) Mean: 24.4 °C, reca Not explicitly stated 100%
4 pt. treated with some form of AER, all died;
4 pt. treated with PER, 1 survived
12 / 22
O’Keeffe 1973 [20] 62 (1) Below 30 °C Immersion in hot bath 100%
1 pt. treated with rapid rewarming by immersion, cardiac arrest immediately after rewarming 13 / 22
Article ID Timespan of data collection Overall mortality Number of cases
(AER, PER, Internal)
Mortality of patients treated with AER Mortality of patients treated with PER Quality score
Gregory et al. 1973 [21] 1951–1972 48.8% 201
(73, 121, 7)
60.3% 44.6%
Article ID Description
Moricheau-Beaupré, 1826 [22] The writings of Napoleon’s regimental surgeon from the Russian campaign in 1812:
“The like holds of general as of local asphyxia; we must not, in avoiding the danger from cold, transport the body into a heated place, or immediately apply to it warm substances; too strong reaction might exhaust the remaining vitality; the dilatation of the tissues and rapid expansion of the forces towards the surface, owing to sudden transition from cold and condensed to warm and rarefied air, causing shooting pains, dyspnoea, suffocation, and death.”
  1. aEndobronchial in one case