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Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of Primary HEMS Missions

From: Mechanical chest compression devices in the helicopter emergency medical service in Switzerland

Variable Women, n = 101 (21%) Men, n = 377 (79%)
Trauma
n = 17 (17%)
Non-Trauma
n = 84 (83%)
Trauma
n = 53 (14%)
Non-Trauma
n = 324 (86%)
Age, mean ± SD 59 ± 17 58 ± 17 53 ± 17 58 ± 17
Autopulse standby 15 (5%)
Asphyxiation/Drowning 9 (53%) 11 (21%)
Avalanche/Hypothermia 2 (12%) 8 (15%)
Blunt multiple trauma 6 (35%) 32 (60%)
Other/Unknown 2 (4%)
Presumed cardiac 27 (32%) 144 (44%)
Respiratory 4 (1%)
Other/Unknown 57 (68%) 176 (54%)
Defibrillation 40 (48%) 5 (9%) 198 (61%)
In flight 1 (1%) 12 (4%)
AED 3 (4%) 17 (5%)
Initial cardiac rhythm
 VF/VT 1 (6%) 33 (39%) 1 (2%) 168 (52%)
 PEA/Asystole 16 (94%) 33 (39%) 49 (92%) 109 (34%)
 Unknown 18 (21%) 3 (6%) 47 (15%)
Lay CPR before EMS arrival 7 (41%) 36 (43%) 25 (47%) 187 (58%)
ROSC 4 (24%) 59 (70%) 20 (38%) 225 (69%)
Intubation 17 (100%) 84 (100%) 53 (100%) 309 (95%)
Transport with ongoing CPR 3 (17%)* 8 (10%) 12 (23%)* 26 (8%)
Time on scene
 < 30 min 1 (6%) 13 (15%) 10 (19%) 90 (28%)
 30–60 min 19 (23%) 23 (43%) 78 (24%)
 > 60 min 4 (5%) 4 (1%)
 Unknown
Outcome
 Hospital discharge 11 (13%) 1 (2%) 76 (23%)
 Death 17 (100%) 48 (57%) 52 (98%) 180 (56%)
 Unknown 25 (30%) 68 (21%)
  1. Percentages are calculated within the columns
  2. SD Standard Deviation, AED Automated External Defibrillator, VF Ventricular Fibrillation, VT Ventricular Tachycardia, PEA Pulseless Electrical Activity, CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, EMS Emergency Medical Services, ROSC Return of Spontaneous Circulation