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Table 1 Patient characteristics and prehospital therapy according to transportation mode

From: Association of helicopter transportation and improved mortality for patients with major trauma in the northern French Alps trauma system: an observational study based on the TRENAU registry

 Missing N (%)All patients N = 9458ground ambulance N = 5253helicopter N = 3524P Value
Mean age (years) (SD)28 (0.3)39 (20)39 (20)38 (19)0.001
Sex male, N (%)4 (0)7281 (77)3977 (76)2768 (79)0.002
Penetrating injury, N (%)48 (0.5)569 (6)464 (9)82 (2)<0.001
Circumstances, N (%)73 (0.8)   <0.001
 Traffic accident 4109 (44)3099 (59)705 (20) 
 Gunshots 148 (2)100 (2)38 (1) 
 Stabbings 363 (4)332 (6)22 (1) 
 Falls 3781 (40)1382 (26)2129 (61) 
Mountain sport accidentsa, N (%)72 (0.8)2685 (28)266 (5)2253 (64)<0.001
Injury severity score (ISS)144 (1.5)    
 Mean (SD) 16 (12)16 (12)16 (12)<0.001
  ≥ 16, N (%) 4272 (46)2243 (43)1633 (47)<0.001
Haemorrhagic shock, N (%)175 (1.9)375 (4)218 (4)116 (3)0.116
Systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, N (%)176 (1.9)633 (7)321 (6)247 (7)0.236
Glasgow coma scale ≤8, N (%)128 (1.4)1179 (13)618 (12)411 (12)0.929
Severe traumatic brain injury, N (%)131 (1.4)1216 (13)677 (13)447 (13)0.730
Prehospital procedure
 Intubation48 (0.5)1415 (15)751 (14)492 (14)0.742
 Fluid resuscitation > 1000 mlb556 (5.9)1158 (13)644 (13)394 (12)0.251
 Vasopressors333 (3.5)543 (6)280 (5)194 (6)0.620
 Chest tube or thoracostomy334 (3.5)106 (1)60 (1)35 (1)0.548
 Blood transfusion335 (3.5)129 (1)61 (1)50 (1)0.259
  1. SD: standard deviation. a Mountain sports included: Ski, Snowboard, Hiking, Mountain bike, Alpinism, Ice climbing, Climbing, Paragliding, Speed riding, Canyoning and Rafting.b Crystalloids or colloids
  2. Haemorrhagic shock was reported by the in-charge physician. Severe traumatic brain injury was defined by an head AIS ≥3