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Table 7 Management and outcomes for patients with and without signs of invasive wounds

From: Performance of pre-hospital evaluations in ruling out invasive chest stab wounds

 Pre-hospital signs of IWs (n = 94)No signs of IWs (n = 59)p**
No intervention, n (%)34(64)40(32)< 0.01a
Cardiothoracic surgery or chest tube, n (%)42(45)12(20)< 0.01a
Chest tube, n (%)28(30)6(10)< 0.01a
All-type surgery, n (%)42(45)16(27)0.03a
 Cardiothoracic surgery, n (%)21(22)8(14)0.18a
  Sternotomy, n (%)7(7)3(5)0.57b
  Thoracotomy, n (%)17(18)5(8)0.10a
Cardiothoracic surgery alone, n (%)16(17)8(14)0.57a
Abdominal procedurea, n (%)24(26)8(14)0.13a
Abdominal procedure alonea, n (%)17(18)8(14)0.46a
Abdominal and cardiothoracic surgery, n (%)3(3)00.07b
Life-saving surgery, n (%)30(32)10(17)0.04a
Surgery within 2 h of admission, n (%)38(40)10(17)0.02a
Intubation for all causes, n (%)48(51)23(39)0.20a
Intubation after arrival at hospital, n (%)40(4323(39)0.66a
Time to surgery** (from admission), med [IQR]1.5[1–2]2[1.9–4.3]0.01c
Lactate blood level: peak (mmol/L), med [IQR]2.3[1–3]2[1.5–3]0.53c
LOS in PACU, med [IQR]2[1–2]1[1–2]0.50c
Discharge from PACU to home, n (%)20(23)23(40)0.04a
Hospital LOS, med [IQR]5[3–9]3[2–6]< 0.01c
Transfusion, n (%)17(18)2(3)0.02a
Haemoglobin level: minimum (g/L), med [IQR]120[105–130]128[115–138]0.02c
Death, n (%)6(6)00.12b
  1. Definitions: LOS Length of Stay, PACU Perioperative Acute Care Unit, IQR Interquartile Range 25–75%
  2. a: Laparoscopy or laparotomy, including exploratory surgery
  3. **: p-value for comparison between patients with signs of IWs and others
  4. Statistical tests: b = chi-squared test; c = Fisher’s exact test; d = Mann-Witney U test