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Table 2 Individual Competencies identified categorised by Country or Jurisdiction

From: What clinical crew competencies and qualifications are required for helicopter emergency medical services? A review of the literature

Country and ReferencesCompetencies
UK (Fullerton et al., 2009, Shapey et al., 2012, McQueen et al., 2013, McQueen et al., 2015a, von Vopelius-Feldt and Benger, 2014, Smith et al., 2019)• ACLS
• Amputation (no instance of practice recorded)
• Chest drain
• Cricothyroidotomy
• Epi admin
• ETI in cardiac arrest
• External jugular access
• External pacing
• Fascia iliaca block
• IO access
• IV Etomidate
• IV Ketamine administration
• IV Propofol
• IV Suxamethonium
• Management of paralysed patient
• Mag sulphate in cardiac arrest
• Needle chest decompression
• Peri-mortem Caesarean section
• Procedural sedation
• Fluid resuscitation
• Rocuronium intravenous
• RSI
• Surgical airway
• Thoracostomy
• Thoracotomy
• Torsades de pointes arrythmia
• Venous cut-down
• Wave form capnography
• Large joint reduction
Victoria, Australia (Heschl et al., 2018b, Andrew et al., 2015, Heschl et al., 2018, Meadley et al., 2016)• Advanced analgesia
• Blood-gas analysis
• Blood transfusion
• Comprehensive analgesia options including opiods and ketamine
• Cricothyroidotomy
• Paediatric RSI with suspected TBI
• RSI – adult and paediatric
• Thoracostomy
• Transfusion of Red Cell Concentrates
• Vasoactive medication admin
• IO access
United States(Sperry et al., 2018, Kashyap et al., 2016, Polites et al., 2017)• Airway management
• ATLS
• IV fentanyl and morphine administration
• IV fluid administration
• Inter-hospital transfer of unstable medical patients Plasma transfusion
• Spinal immobilisation
• Ventilation
• Transportation of severe trauma patients
Germany (Eich et al., 2009)• Analgesia/Sedation
• Catecholamine administration
• Chest tube and drain– paediatric and adult
• CPR
• Defibrillation– paediatric and adult
• IO access– paediatric and adult
• Intubation – paediatric and adult
• Volume administration
Denmark (Rognås et al., 2013)• Drug-assisted airway management (non RSI)
• RSI intubation
• Nasopharyngeal airway
• Surgical airway
New South Wales(Burns et al., 2017, Garner et al., 2016)• Analgesia/procedural sedation
• Direct screening of emergency calls to identify appropriate (paediatric) response
• Regional anaesthesia/nerve block
• RSI and intubation – adult and paediatric
• Surgical airway
Adult EZ-intraosseous access
• Blood transfusion
• Orthopaedic manipulation of joint/limb
• Use of ultrasound (diagnostic/procedural)
• Hypertonic saline administration
• Thoracostomy/chest drain
Norway(Bjornsen et al., 2018, Johnsen et al., 2017)• ACLS
• Anti-arrythmic therapy
• Arterial line insertion
• BMV adult/paediatric
• Chest tube placement and drainage
• Central venous catheter insertion
• Dislocated joint reposition
• ETI adult/paediatric
• Fracture reposition
• Gastric tube insertion
• Incubator transport
• Inhalation therapy
• Invasive and non-invasive ventilation
• IV/IO access
• Major incident management
• Reduction and immobilisation of fractures
• RSI
• Umbilical cord catheterisation
CountryCompetencies  
*The Netherlands (van Schuppen and Bierens, 2015, van Schuppen and Bierens, 2011, Ketelaars et al., 2018, Gerritse et al., 2010, Franschman et al., 2012)• Analgesia/Sedation
• Catecholamine administration
• Chest tube
• CPR
• Drug-assisted and non-drug-assisted ETI
• Echocardiography
• Extrication techniques
• Intubation
• RSI intubation
• Volume administration
Diagnostic competencies
• Cold diuresis
• Diaphragm rupture
• Hypocalcaemia
• Hypomagnesemia
• Kidney failure
• Malignant hyperthermia
• Tracheobronchial injury
Therapeutic competencies
• Amputation
• Atracurium
• Blood transfusion
• Caesarean section
• Calciumchlorid Cefuroxime
• Chest tube
• Cricothyrotomy (surgical
• Dopamine
• Ephedrine
• Escharotomy
• Etomidate
• Fascia iliaca compartment block
• Flumazenil
• Gum elastic bougie
• Hydrocortisone
• Hydroxycobalamine
• HyperHaes®
• Incision
• Insulin
• Intravenous access, central
• Jet ventilation
• Lidocaine
• Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA®)
• Magnesium
• Mannitol
• Nasopharyngeal airway
• Noradrenaline
• Pericardiocentesis
• Potassium
• Procainamide Propofol
• Push foreign object from trachea into bronchus
• Rocuronium
• Ropivacaine
• Succinylcholine
• Sufentanil
• Supraglottic airway
• Suturing
• Thoracotomy
• Tracheotomy
• Trachlight
• Thrombolysis
• Venesection
Clinical judgment competencies
• Advance endotracheal tube in case of bronchus rupture
• Cardiopulmonary bypass in hypothermia
• Dialysis in hyperkalemia
• Induction with s-ketamine in asthma/COPD
• Intravenous lidocaine administration before endotracheal intubation in possible intracranial hypertension
• Intubation and ventilation in pneumonia
• Magnesium in bronchial asthma/COPD
• Push foreign object in further in bronchus
• Resuscitation in hypothermia is beneficial
• Supraglottic airway in “cannot intubate, cannot ventilate” situation
• Thrombolysis in pulmonary embolus
  1. *full list of competencies identified in Van Schuppen et al (2011) available athttp://links.lww.com/EJEM/A2andhttp://links.lww.com/EJEM/A3