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Table 2 Distribution (%) of the spontaneous trigger words and their association with confirmed cardiac arrests

From: Spontaneous trigger words associated with confirmed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a descriptive pilot study of emergency calls

 True cardiac arrestNon-cardiac arrestOR (95% CI)
Trigger wordsn = 51n = 29 
Dead or is dying16101.61 (0.39–6.63)
Altered level of consciousness
 Unconscious20310.54 (0.19–1.55)
 Unable to wake871.15 (0.20–6.69)
 Nonresponsive1233.73 (0.43–32.7)
 Impaired40NA
 Unable to speak270.27 (0.02–3.12)
 Unclassified consciousness470.55 (0.07–4.14)
Breathing
 Is breathing12170.42 (0.12–1.51)
 Not breathing1836.00 (0.72–50.0)
 Laboured1233.73 (0.43–32.7)
 Heavily03NA
 Irregularly6100.54 (0.10–2.88)
 Is gasping for breath1271.80 (0.34–9.56)
 A deep breath230.56 (0.03–9.30)
 Is snoring2210.08 (0.009–0.67)
 Is wheezing33172.40 (0.78–7.40)
 Unclassified breathing29142.60 (0.77–8.78)
Circulation
 No pulse431.14 (0.10–13.2)
 Pale1434.46 (0.52–38.2)
 Red01NA
 Blue1836.00 (0.72–50.0)
 Cold1071.47 (0.27–8.09)
 Clammy8100.74 (0.15–3.55)
 Is bleeding or there is blood470.55 (0.07–4.14)
 Heart pain60NA
Disability
 Is convulsing4140.26 (0.04–1.49)
 Limp12101.16 (0.27–5.01)
 Incontinent1033.04 (0.34–27.4)
 Eyes or gaze20141.52 (0.43–5.38)
 Mouth open1233.73 (0.43–32.7)
 Something from mouth6140.39 (0.08–1.88)
 Is moving80NA
History of present illness
 Collapsed or fallen down2474.15 (0.86–20.1)
 Seizure27310.84 (0.31–2.28)
 Taken something4100.35 (0.06–2.25)
Unclassified2240.06 (0.007–0.54)
  1. OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; NA not applicable