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Table 1 Characteristics of dispatched fire fighters

From: First-response treatment after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a survey of current practices across 29 countries in Europe

Country, RegionActivation byLocation determination1. Response neededRole on sceneEquipmentTraining; FrequencyFeedbackFinancial assistance (NOT including: salary)
2. Information provided by dispatcher
Austria
(N = 8.220000)
Standard communication systemGPS1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim; location of AED
1. Get a local AED or from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyDesignated EMS staff discuss calls attended with firefightersPayment of equipment; AED related disposables
Czech Republic,
(N = 10.521646)
Standard communication systemAddress and GPS1. Subsequent call from dispatcher to firefighter or backwards
2. Location of victim; demographics; situational information
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit;
5. BVM,
6. Oxygen
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyDesignated EMS staff discuss calls attended with firefighters/Firefighters participate in a debrief with EMS staff immediately after an OHCA/the own training officers can also take partNo
Denmark, Capital Region, Region Zealand, Region South
(N = 3.879024)
Standard communication systemGPS1. No response from the firefighter is required
2. Location of victim
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
3. Perform CPR
1. AEDTrained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyNoneNo
Denmark Central Region, Region North
(N = 1.903148)
Standard communication systemGPS1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
3. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; Introduced low dose, high frequency trainingNoneNo
England
(N = 55.980000)
SMS or APPAddress1. No response from the firefighter is required
2. Location of victim, demographics (victim) & situational info
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR;
5. They are trained in airway management OP airways
1. AED;
2. Mobile phone/pager
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyFirefighter activity is described in the annual report/Firefighters receive a regular report of their activity/Firefighters receive written feedback on individual calls from the EMSNo
Finland
(N = 5.513000)
Standard communication systemGPS1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyFirefighter activity is described in the annual reportNo
Ireland
(N = 4.830000)
Standard communication system; SMSNot determined1. Following local fire and rescue dispatch protocols
2. Location of victim; demographics; situational information
1. Get a local AED or from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Resuscitation kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; Bi-annuallyFirefighter activity is described in the annual report/Firefighters participate in a debrief with EMS staff immediately after an OHCANo
Italy, Emilia Romagna
(N = 4.453000)
APPGPS1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim & location of AED
1. Get a local AED or from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; Bi-annuallyThe responder manager sends an email to collect feedback by mail (but is not a routine)Supported by Emilia Romagna Healthcare Region Funding and Fondazione del Monte di Bologna e Ravenna for development.
Luxembourg
(N = 6,020,050)
Standard communication system; SMS, PagerNot determined1. Following local fire and rescue dispatch protocols
2. Location of victim; demographics; situational information
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
3. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; initial advanced training in first aid (~ 40 h), annually 8 h trainingNoneNo
The Netherlands
(N = 17.180000)
Standard communication systemGPS1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim, demographics (victim) and situational information
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
3. Perform CPR;
4. Maintain a safe situation
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyNoneNo
Norway
(N = 5.328212)
Standard communication systemThrough communication with firefighter dispatch centre1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim; situational information
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; Firefighters are motivated to train every yearNoneNo
Poland
(N = 37.980000)
Standard communication systemAddress1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Mobile phone/pager;
3. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; 3 yearsNRNo
Portugal
(N = 10.290000)
Standard communication systemAddress1. Using the radio
2. Location of victim; demographics; situational information
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit
Training is not nationally organized, only in a few corporations firefighters are trained to use AEDNRNo
Romania
(N = 19.530000)
Standard communication system; SMS; PagerGPS; Address1. Radio or phone report provide to the dispatch with physician on coordination
2. Location of victim; situational info
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR;
5. IV line;
6. Combi-tube
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit;
5. Valve mask;
6. IV;
7. Oxygen
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; Every two yearsFirefighters receive a regular report of their activity/Designated EMS staff discuss calls attended with firefightersMedical supplies, all materials for interventions; support for training and some equipment.
Slovenia
(N = 2.084000)
Standard communication systemLocation is not determined or tracked - they are activated if the ETA of the first responders is faster than the ETA of the EMS team - we expect them to be within the located district1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim
1. One person in the team has the AED/or AED at the station;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Mobile phone/pager;
3. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyInformally, e.g. reports on the resultsYes, not from the EMS but from the local municipality
Sweden, Norbotten County
(N = 251,295)
Standard communication system; SMSGPS1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim, demographics (victim)
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
3. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Mobile phone/pager;
3. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyNRNo
Sweden, Region Western Sweden
(N = 2.016000)
Standard communication systemGPS1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim, demographics (victim)
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Mobile phone/pager;
3. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyMeeting between EMS and fire fighters differs depending on municipality/sub regionNo
Sweden, Stockholm
(N = 965,232)
Standard communication systemGPS1. The call is connected to the own dispatch centre whereby they confirm their response.
2. Location of victim & demographics (victim)
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
3. Perform CPR
1. AED;
2. Mobile phone/pager;
3. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; AnnuallyMeeting a couple of times each year to discuss the collaborationNo
Switzerland, Ticino Canton)
(N = 353,709)
SMS or APPNot determined1. Confirming the response
2. Location of victim, Location of AED, demographics (victim) & situational information
1. Get an AED from the vehicle;
2. Connect a breathing mask;
3. Attach pads and follow the AED instructions;
4. Perform CPR;
5. Assistance to bystanders;
6. Integration in advanced resuscitation (with ambulance team)
1. AED;
2. Safety jacket;
3. Mobile phone/pager;
4. Rescuer kit
Trained for CPR including use of an AED; Bi-annuallyDesignated EMS staff discuss calls attended with firefighters/Firefighters participate in a debrief with EMS staff immediately after an OHCA/Firefighters receive feedback based on AED data from the operational and clinical manager. They are invited to the annual ceremony, where survivors meet first respondersAED and rescue kit donated from Fondazione Ticino Cuore
  1. If fire fighters are considered to be implemented in the total country, differences in density and characteristics, from city to city, may exist
  2. AED Automatic External Defibrillator, APP (mobile) application, BVM Bag Valve Mask, CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, EMS Emergency Medical Services, ETA Estimated Time of Arrival, GPS Global Positioning System, OHCA out of hospital cardiac arrest, NR Not reported; SMS, text message