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Table 2 Competencies from Delphi round 2

From: A Delphi consensus study for teaching “Basic Trauma Management” to third-year medical students

Coding Item Median (IQR) Agreement (%) Result
Triage Know how to conduct preclinical triage 3.5 (2.75–4) 50.0  
Know how to conduct In-hospital triage 4 (2–4) 61.1  
Demonstration of triage in a workshop 4 (2.75–4.25) 61.1  
Do triage 3 (2.75–4) 38.9 bExcluded
Structured approach Describe the ABCDE algorithm to assess a trauma patient 5 100 Consensus
Perform a secondary survey 4 (3–5) 72.2  
Be able to describe the ABCDE sequence of trauma 5 (4–5) 100 Consensus
Do a primary survey according to the ABCDE approach 5 100 Consensus
Have a structured approach to the patient 5 100 Consensus
Treat only what needs to be treated, fast 4 (4–5) 88.8  
Why the ABCDE is important: “To treat first what kills first” 5 100 Consensus
Which problems to identify in primary and secondary survey 5 (4–5) 83.4 Consensus
Management general Diagnose and treat life-threatening conditions 5 (3.75–5) 77.8 Consensus
Treat hemorrhagic shock 5 (4–5) 88.9 Consensus
Teach/refresh the BLS 5 (4–5) 83.4 Consensus
Treatment of massive bleeding 4,5 (4–5) 88.9  
Diagnostic tools in trauma management 3 (3–4) 44.4 bExcluded
Trauma cinematics 3.5 (2,75–5) 50 bExcluded
Be able to discuss the reason why ATLS is structured the way it is, with its benefits and pitfalls 4 (3–5) 72.2  
Be able to stop the bleeding 5 (4–5) 100 Consensus
What to do as first responder 4 (3–5) 72.2  
Process of treatment of trauma patients from triage to definitive care 3 (2–4) 33.4 bExcluded
The AMPLE 4 (3–5) 88.9  
Use oxygen correctly 5 (3.75–5) 77.8 Consensus
Assessment of vital signs 5 (4–5) 100 Consensus
Technical skill Basic knowledge of immobilization techniques 5 (4–5) 88.9 Consensus
Indications, contra-indications, advantages and disadvantages of immobilization techniques 4 (3.75–4) 77.8  
Immobilization skills 4 (3.75–5) 77.7  
Demonstrate and use material for the management of trauma patients 4 (3–5) 72.2  
Thorax drain insertion demonstration 3 (1.75–3.25) 22.2 bExcluded
Pelvic sling use 5 (3.75–5) 77.8 Consensus
Airway management 4 (2.75–5) 61.1 aExcluded
At the end of the course, students should be able to perform a simulated scenario 4 (4–5) 94.5  
Perform bag-mask ventilation 4 (3.75–5) 77.7  
Perform the airway management specific to trauma (MILS) 4 (2–4) 55.1  
Perform HWS immobilization 5 (4–5) 88.9 Consensus
Demonstrate the immobilization of a conscious trauma victim including extrication collar and pelvic binder 4 (4–5) 83.3  
Demonstrate immobilization techniques and consequences for clinical work 4 (3–5) 72.2  
Adequate handling of the spine, check that no danger threatens, since a paralysis is a problem   66.6 cExcluded
Immobilization with extrication collar 4 (4–5) 94.4  
Immobilization with vacuum mattress 4 (4–4.25) 83.3  
Use of the scoop stretcher 4 (3–4) 61.1  
Use of the spine board 4 (3–4) 72.3  
Perform a log-roll 4 (4–5) 94.5  
Perform an E-FAST 3 (1–4) 38.9 bExcluded
Management specific Tourniquet use 4 (3–4.25) 66.6  
Assessment of minor musculoskeletal trauma 3 (2–4) 27.8 bExcluded
Assessment of traumatic brain injury 4 (3–5) 72.2  
Wound care 3 (2–4) 44.4 bExcluded
Aspects not included in ATLS, like coagulation aspects of trauma, use of painkillers 3 (2–4) 38.9 bExcluded
Be able to discuss the pathophysiological changes in hypovolemic patients (why look at lactate and pH, not hemoglobin?). 4 (3–4.25) 66.6  
Know the basics of diagnosis and treatment of different kinds of trauma (e.g., head, abdomen, thoracic, spinal, extremities) 4 (3–5) 66.7  
To correlate trauma cinematics with potential lesions 4 (3–4) 61.1  
Wound care 3 (2–4) 27.1 bExcluded
Manage massive bleeding and perform the needle decompression of tension pneumothorax, because it saves lives 4 (2–5) 61.1 cExcluded
Perform sutures 1.5 (1–3) 16.7 bExcluded
Discuss the limitations of trauma care for the elderly 3 (2–4) 38.9 bExcluded
Organization and reporting of the trauma scene 3 (2–4) 72.2 bExcluded
Transport Transport to adequate hospital 4 (3–5) 61.1  
Stay and play vs scoop and run 4 (3–5) 72.2  
Safely transport a trauma patient 4 (2–4) 55.5  
Human factor Teach non-technical skills (leadership, membership, situational awareness) 4 (3–5) 61.1  
Teach about decision-making 4 (3–5) 66.6  
Empowerment of students in the classroom 4 (3–4) 66.7  
Teach about teamwork 4 (4–5) 83.4  
Establish clear communication 4 (3.75–5) 77.7  
Work as a team member 4 (3.75–5) 77.7  
Be able to call for help properly 4 (3.75–5) 88.9  
Coordination of different professional groups in an emergency 3 (2–3.5) 72.2 bExcluded
Have communication skills 5 (4–5) 88.9 Consensus
Correctly communicate in a handover 4 (3–5) 66.6  
Coordinate team members 3.5 (3–4) 50.0  
Be able to lead a trauma situation 3 (2–3.25) 22.3 bExcluded
Be a good team player 4.5 (4–5) 88.9  
Learn to prioritize 4.5 (4–5) 94.0  
Be aware of own limitations 5 (4–5) 100 Consensus
Be able to communicate clearly 5 (4–5) 94.4 Consensus
Be capable of decision-making 4 (3–4.25) 72.2  
Stay calm 4 (3.75–5) 77.7  
Speak up 4 (4–5) 83.3  
Security Maintain safety of self, team, and patient 5 (3.75–5) 77.8 Consensus
Call for help properly and assess your security 5 (4–5) 94.5 Consensus
Secure the place and self 5 (4–5) 83.4 Consensus
Be able to assess your own security in the emergency location 5 (4–5) 88.9 Consensus
Knowledge The script of the BTM course Bern 4 (3–4.25) 72.2 cExcluded
  1. a Items with overlapping subjects with other current third-year courses
  2. bItems with median ≤ 3
  3. cItems excluded due to potential misunderstanding of phrasing