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Table 1 Description of measurements

From: Determining optimal needle size for decompression of tension pneumothorax in children – a CT-based study

Width of the ICS Bottom edge of the 4th rib to the top edge of the 5th rib, measured in the coronar plane.
Difference between width of the ICS and outer diameter of the needles (Width of the ICS in cm) – (outer diameter of the respective needle in cm).
Chest wall thickness Distance from the skin surface to the pleural cavity, measured perpendicular to the chest wall in the axial plane.
Depth to vital structure Distance from the skin surface to the intersection with the closest vital structure in the direction of puncture. Measured in the axial plane.
Decompression failure Chest wall thickness > length of the needle
Risk of injury Depth to vital structure < length of the needle
Vital structures Pericardium, aorta, vena cava inferior and superior, pulmonary vessels including larger intraparenchymal branches, thymus gland.