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Table 3 Characteristics and type of pain for female patients in the derivation set with and without a diagnosis of ACS

From: Predicting acute coronary syndrome in males and females with chest pain who call an emergency medical communication centre

  Total (n = 1087) ACS (n = 92) No ACS (n = 995) p value
Age, mean (SD), y, No. (%) 55.2 (18.1) 69.7 (13.7) 53.9 (17.9) < 0.001
 < 60 215 (19.8) 9 (9.8) 206 (20.7) < 0.001
 ≥ 60 445 (40.9) 75 (81.5) 370 (37.2)  
Coexisting conditions, No. (%)
 Hypertension 382 (35.1) 49 (53.3) 333 (33.5) < 0.001
 Personal coronary artery disease 179 (16.5) 35 (38.0) 144 (14.5) < 0.001
 Family coronary artery disease 178 (16.4) 10 (10.9) 168 (16.9) 0.136
 Tobacco use 249 (22.9) 12 (13.0) 237 (23.8) 0.019
 Diabetes 130 (12.0) 17 (18.5) 113 (11.4) 0.044
 Dyslipidaemia 207 (19.0) 28 (30.4) 179 (18.0) 0.004
Medication therapy, No. (%)
 Aspirin 129 (11.9) 24 (26.1) 105 (10.6) < 0.001
 Clopidogrel 64 (5.9) 16 (17.4) 48 (4.8) < 0.001
 Thyroid hormone 90 (8.3) 7 (7.6) 83 (8.3) 0.807
 Statin 132 (12.1) 20 (21.7) 112 (11.3) 0.003
Severity of pain, median (IQR) 5 [4–7] 5 [4–7] 5 [4–7] 0.496
Type of pain, No. (%)
 Severe pain (NRS ≥6) 489 (45.0) 42 (45.7) 447 (45.0) 0.900
 Permanent 272 (25.0) 24 (26.1) 248 (24.9) 0.805
 Pain onset:     0.620
  Crescendo 207 (19.1) 14 (15.2) 193 (19.4)  
  Abruptly 483 (44.4) 43 (46.7) 440 (44.2)  
  Unclassified 397 (36.5) 35 (38.1) 362 (36.4)  
Circumstance of pain, No. (%)     0.210
 At rest 914 (84.1) 75 (81.5) 839 (84.3)  
 Sport or stress-related 81 (7.5) 5 (5.4) 76 (7.6)  
 Unclassified 92 (8.5) 12 (13.1) 80 (8.0)  
Pain typography, No. (%)
 Typical chest paina 616 (56.7) 64 (69.6) 552 (55.5) 0.009
 Retrosternal 461 (42.4) 52 (56.5) 409 (41.1) 0.004
 Post-myocardial infarction angina 41/179 (22.9) 9/35 (25.7) 32/144 (22.2) 0.659
 Peak type 216 (19.9) 6 (6.5) 210 (21.1) 0.001
 Burning 132 (12.1) 14 (15.2) 118 (11.9) 0.345
 Pinching 53 (4.9) 1 (1.1) 52 (5.2) 0.122
 Increasing at position change 229 (21.1) 5 (5.4) 224 (22.5) < 0.001
 Breathing non-related 769 (70.7) 83 (90.2) 686 (68.9) < 0.001
 Radiating 475 (43.7) 52 (56.5) 423 (42.5) 0.010
 Additional symptoms 737 (67.9) 70 (76.1) 667 (67.1) 0.077
  1. ACS Acute coronary syndrome, NRS Numeric rating scale, IQR Interquartile range
  2. aTypical chest pain is characterized by a retrosternal sensation of pressure or heaviness (“angina”), which may be intermittent (usually lasting several minutes) or persistent