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Table 1 Characteristics and type of pain for male patients in the derivation set with and without a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

From: Predicting acute coronary syndrome in males and females with chest pain who call an emergency medical communication centre

  Total (n = 1398) ACS (n = 329) No ACS (n = 1069) p value
Age, mean (SD), y, No. (%) 59.2 (16.1) 59.4 (13.2) 50.9 (16.4) < 0.001
 < 40 291 (20.8) 18 (5.5) 273 (25.5) < 0.001
 40–50 317 (22.7) 59 (17.9) 258 (24.1)  
 50–60 320 (22.9) 95 (28.9) 225 (21.0)  
 ≥ 60 470 (33.6) 157 (47.7) 313 (29.3)  
Coexisting conditions, No. (%)
 Hypertension 405 (29.0) 123 (37.4) 282 (26.4) < 0.001
 Personal coronary artery disease 387 (27.7) 126 (38.3) 261 (24.4) < 0.001
 Family coronary artery disease 231 (16.5) 51 (15.5) 180 (16.8) 0.568
 Tobacco use 545 (39.0) 133 (40.4) 412 (38.5) 0.540
 Diabetes 183 (13.1) 59 (17.9) 124 (11.6) 0.003
 Dyslipidaemia 337 (24.1) 97 (29.5) 240 (22.5) 0.009
Medication therapy, No. (%)
 Aspirin 296 (21.2) 100 (30.4) 196 (18.3) < 0.001
 Clopidogrel 209 (14.9) 77 (23.4) 132 (12.3) < 0.001
 Thyroid hormone 12 (0.9) 2 (0.6) 10 (0.9) 0.743
 Statin 263 (18.8) 87 (26.4) 176 (16.5) < 0.001
Severity of pain, median (IQR) 5 [3–7] 5 [4–7] 5 [3–7] < 0.001
Type of pain, No. (%)
 Severe pain (NRS ≥6) 592 (42.4) 162 (49.2) 430 (40.3) 0.004
 Permanent 350 (25.0) 102 (31.0) 248 (23.2) 0.004
 Pain onset:     0.066
  Crescendo 307 (22.0) 67 (20.4) 240 (22.5)  
  Abruptly 590 (42.2) 157 (47.7) 433 (40.5)  
  Unclassified 501 (35.8) 105 (31.9) 396 (37.0)  
Circumstance of pain, No. (%)     0.012
 At rest 1106 (79.1) 244 (74.2) 862 (80.6)  
 Sport or stress-related 180 (12.9) 58 (17.6) 122 (11.4)  
 Unclassified 112 (8.0) 27 (8.2) 85 (8.0)  
Pain typography, No. (%)
 Typical chest paina 799 (57.2) 224 (68.1) 575 (53.8) < 0.001
 Retrosternal 671 (48.0) 201 (61.1) 470 (44.0) < 0.001
 Post-myocardial infarction angina 119/387 (30.8) 50/126 (39.7) 69/261 (24.4) 0.008
 Peak type 260 (18.6) 28 (8.5) 232 (21.7) < 0.001
 Burning 182 (13.0) 51 (15.5) 131 (12.3) 0.126
 Pinching 81 (5.8) 7 (2.1) 74 (6.9) 0.001
 Increasing at position change 252 (18.0) 29 (8.8) 223 (20.9) < 0.001
 Breathing non-related 1037 (74.2) 299 (90.9) 738 (69.0) < 0.001
 Radiating 592 (42.3) 179 (54.4) 413 (38.6) < 0.001
 Additional symptoms 937 (67.1) 249 (75.7) 688 (64.4) < 0.001
  1. ACS Acute coronary syndrome, NRS Numeric rating scale, IQR Interquartile range
  2. aTypical chest pain is characterized by a retrosternal sensation of pressure or heaviness (“angina”), which may be intermittent (usually lasting several minutes) or persistent