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Table 2 The PICO questions

From: New clinical guidelines on the spinal stabilisation of adult trauma patients – consensus and evidence based

Clinical question Population Intervention Comparator Outcome
Should adult trauma patients where there is concern for the development of a secondary spinal cord injury undergo spinal stabilisation... Adult trauma patients (> = 18 years), where there is concern for the development of a secondary spinal chord injury    
1.) ...with a rigid cervical collar? ditto Rigid cervical collar No rigid cervical collar Mortality
Neurologic morbidity
Ulcerations
Pain / discomfort
Respiratory deterioration
Time to diagnose
Intracranial pressure
2.) …on a hard backboard? ditto Hard backboard No hard backboard Mortality
Neurologic morbidity
Pain/discomfort
Ulcerations
Time to diagnose
3.) …in a vacuum mattress? ditto Vacuum mattress No vacuum mattress Mortality Neurologic morbidity
Pain/discomfort Ulcerations
Time to diagnose
4.) Should adult trauma patients with isolated penetrating injuries undergo spinal stabilisation? ditto Spinal stabilisation No spinal stabilisation Mortality
Neurologic morbidity
5.) Should the decision, whether and how to stabilise the spine of a trauma patient be facilitated by a clinical decision tool? ditto Use of a clinical decision tool No use of a clinical decision tool Mortality
Neurologic morbidity