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Table 2 Incident description from the Oslofjord tunne [19]

From: Prehospital management provided by medical on-scene commanders in tunnel incidents in Oslo, Norway – an interview study

A lorry caught fire 1,700 meters from the tunnel exit in the Oslofjord tunnel (7,306 m long, subsea, monotube tunnel) in June 23, 2011. The fire was detected by the Road Traffic Control Centre via road traffic cameras. Due to heavy smoke, the fire ventilation system was activated. The direction of the ventilation was predetermined, filling most of tunnel with smoke, complicating the self-rescue for the remaining road users. The tunnel had no smoke-proof evacuation rooms, and the closest exit was 3,480 meters away from the fire. The rescue operation involved about 120 personnel from the emergency services, including 57 medical personnel, 20 ambulances, 3 air ambulances, 1 on-scene commander, and 2 medical busses. A total of 37 road-users were taken to the hospital for examination. Their medical conditions were unknown, but there were no fatalities.