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Table 2 Comparison of baseline characteristics between the cases identified through hospital sampling and those identified from the literature review

From: An evaluation of the Swiss staging model for hypothermia using hospital cases and case reports from the literature

  Overall (n = 305) Hospital (n = 122) Literature (n = 183) P value
Age (years), mean ± SD 47 ± 26 56 ± 22 41 ± 27 < 0.001
Sex male, n (%) 186 (61) 75 (61) 111 (61) 0.886
Temp (°C), mean ± SD 27.7 ± 5.2 31.8 ± 3.3 25.0 ± 4.4 < 0.001
GCS, median (IQR) 7 (3–15) 15 (12–15) 3 (3–6) < 0.001
Heart rate, mean ± SD 48 ± 39 71 ± 26 30 ± 37 < 0.001
Heart rate, median (IQR) 54 (0–80) 76 (58–90) 18 (0–54) < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean ± SD 121 ± 31 131 ± 25 101 ± 33 < 0.001
Respiration rate, median (IQR) 0 (0–16) 18 (10–20) 0 (0–0) < 0.001
Clinical stage, n (%)     < 0.001
 1 89 (29) 79 (65) 10 (5)  
 2 47 (15) 23 (19) 24 (13)  
 3 79 (26) 12 (10) 68 (37)  
 4 90 (30) 8 (7) 81 (44)  
Cause, n (%)     < 0.001
 Water exposition 91 (30) 14 (11) 77 (42)  
 Avalanche 17 (6) 9 (7) 8 (4)  
 Environmental/other/unknown 197 (65) 99 (81) 98 (54)  
Survival, n (%) 262 (94) 112 (92) 150 (96) 0.195
Outcome for survivors, n (%)     0.060
 CPC 1 251 (96) 111 (99) 140 (93)  
 CPC 2–3 6 (2.3) 1 (0.9) 5 (3.3)  
 Unknown 5 (1.9) 0 (0) 5 (3.3)  
  1. CPC cerebral performance categories (1 = normal or slightly diminished cerebral function, 5 = brain dead); GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, IQR interquartile range