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Table 3 Differences between patients with and without diagnostic discrepancy

From: Diagnostic error increases mortality and length of hospital stay in patients presenting through the emergency room

Measure Total n = 755 Without diagnostic discrepancy n = 662 (87.68%) With diagnostic discrepancy n = 93 (12.32%) p $ Effect Size*
Type Estimate 95% CI§
At presentation to the ER
 Age (years; mean [SD]) 65.14 (18.4) 64.84 (18.68) 67.21 (16.17) 0.199 Cohen’s d 0.13 −0.10 – 0.35
 Female (n [%]) 322 (42.65%) 278 (41.99%) 44 (47.31%) 0.360 Odds Ratio 1.23 0.79–1.89
 Non-specific chief complaint (n [%]) 165 (21.85%) 143 (21.6%) 22 (23.66%) 0.809 Odds Ratio 0.95 0.62–1.41
Triage category (n [%])
 See immediately 43 (5.7%) 36 (5.44%) 7 (7.53%) 0.281 Kendall’s τ 0.04 −0.03 – 0.11
 See within 20 min 316 (41.85%) 275 (38.82%) 41 (44.09%)
 See within 120 min 367 (48.61%) 324 (48.94%) 43 (46.24%)
 See today 23 (3.05%) 21 (3.2%) 2 (2.15%)
 Non-urgent 6 (0.8%) 6 (0.91%) 0
 Via resuscitation bay (n [%]) 81 (10.73%) 69 (10.42%) 12 (12.9%) 0.463 Odds Ratio 1.28 0.66–2.48
 Time at ER (hours; mean [SD]) 6.54 (2.97) 6.5 (3.02) 6.87 (2.58) 0.202 Cohen’s d 0.13 −0.09 – 0.34
 Charlson comorbidity index (points; median [IQR]) 4.28 (2.87) 4.27 (2.89) 4.38 (2.76) 0.711 Kendall’s τ 0.01 −0.04 – 0.07
 Number of active medications (median [IQR]) 11.46 (8.94) 11.37 (8.86) 12.04 (9.54) 0.590 Kendall’s τ 0.02 −0.05 – 0.08
 Number of groups of medications (median [IQR]) 3.03 (2.15) 3.02 (2.10) 3.21 (2.40) 0.547 Kendall’s τ 0.02 −0.05 – 0.09
Outcome
 Length of hospital stay (LOS) (days; mean [SD]) 7.32(7.19) 6.90 (6.56) 10.29 (10.14) 0.002 Cohen’s d 0.47 0.26–0.70
 Mortality (n [%]) 33 (4.37%) 25 (3.78%) 8 (8.60%) 0.038 Odds Ratio 2.40 1.05–5.50
  1. All percentages refer to number of patients within column
  2. $ For difference between patients with and without diagnostic discrepancy, two-sided p values are reported
  3. * Odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous variables; Kendall’s τ for ordinal variables, effect size d for metric variables;
  4. § CI is the Confidence Interval, for Kendall’s τ this was determined by bootstrapping with 2000 repetitions